This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Accolade (company)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Accolade (game company))
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Infogrames North America, Inc.
FormerlyAccolade, Inc. (1984–1999)
TypeSubsidiary
IndustryVideo games
FoundedNovember 1984; 36 years ago (1984-11)
Founders
DefunctSeptember 2000; 20 years ago (2000-09)
FateAcquired and consolidated
Headquarters,
US
Area served
North America
Products
ParentInfogrames (1999–2000)

Accolade, Inc. (renamed as Infogrames North America, Inc. in 1999) was an American video game developer and publisher based in San Jose, California. The company was founded as Accolade in November 1984 by Alan Miller and Bob Whitehead, who had previously co-founded Activision in October 1979. The company became known for numerous sports franchises, including HardBall!, Jack Nicklaus, and Test Drive. By the early 1990s, the company also published acclaimed games such as Star Control and Bubsy, but faced the financial strain of a lawsuit with Sega. After winning the case on appeal, Accolade was transformed under new investors and new management, who focused on existing franchises in the hope of securing the company's future.

Infogrames Entertainment SA purchased Accolade in 1999, and continued operating the company as a subsidiary called "Infogrames North America" until they consolidated into one Infogrames brand. Infogrames later rebranded under a revived Atari trademark, before declaring bankruptcy in 2013. The Accolade brand was later revived in 2018, when their former assets were acquired by Hong Kong-based holding company Billionsoft, leading to new Bubsy games published by Tommo.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

When you’ve achieved so much success on a specific game system, it’s hard to let go of it. We saw a new market, a new challenge, and some better hardware… we wanted to move forward.

— Alan Miller[1]

Accolade was founded in 1984 by Alan Miller and Bob Whitehead; both had previously worked at Atari.[1] Miller and Whitehead believed that Atari undervalued its coding team, leading them to leave the company and start Activision in 1979.[2] Activision became the first third-party game developer, and one of the few game companies to survive the video game crash of 1983, though they still posted $18 million dollars in losses the following year.[1] After a large devaluation of their stock, Miller and Whitehead left Activision to form Accolade.[2][3]

Accolade was founded and operated in San Jose, California.[4] Whitehead and Miller saw an opportunity to develop games for home computers such as the Commodore 64, allowing their new company to diversify into a market that Activision had not yet explored.[1] This would also allow Accolade to take advantage of floppy disks as a new technology, which were less expensive to manufacture than cartridges, and did not require licensing fees to be paid to the console companies.[5] Whitehead and Miller were unable to attract investment in the video game climate of the time, leading them to self-fund their new venture. The pair hired CEO Tom Frisina to handle managerial duties and began to each work on their own launch titles.[6] They also hired Mimi Doggett, a veteran visual artist from Atari, to compete with other developers on graphical detail.[5]

Their goal for their first titles was to think beyond the gaming medium and draw inspiration from other popular entertainment, including television and film.[6] Miller's first project was Law of the West, a High Noon inspired western that mixed gunfights with adventure game elements, pioneering multiple dialog options that later became common in other games.[1] At the same time, Whitehead had previously seen success with the sports games Home Run and Football on the Atari 2600, which led to the baseball game HardBall! as his Accolade debut.[1] The game was the first to emulate the "behind the pitcher" viewpoint seen on television, and introduced new features such as coach-mode and player data.[6] It became one of Accolade's best selling games on the Commodore 64[7] and was considered a commercial blockbuster at the time.[8]

Success in sports and publishing[edit]

Accolade aimed to balance their roles as both a developer and publisher. Miller recalled that "we tried to have about half of the original titles done by employee developers and half done by external development groups." External groups would port the games to other hardware so that Accolade could focus more energy on original titles.[6] One of their first third-party games was SunDog: Frozen Legacy by FTL Games.[5] Accolade recruited Mike Lorenzen from Activision to create the science fiction game Psi 5 Trading Company,[5] drawing inspiration from Star Trek.[6] Other early successes included boxing game Fight Night,[7] developed by Canadian developer Artech Digital Entertainment.[6] Artech also created the flight simulator The Dam Busters inspired by the classic war film, which led to another flight simulator called Ace of Aces.[5] Ace of Aces became one of Accolade's most successful games,[7] selling 500,000 units after a development cost of less than $80,000.[5] As a publisher, Accolade partnered with peers such as U.S. Gold to distribute their games in Europe, before later switching to Electronic Arts, who would eventually become Accolade's biggest domestic competitor.[5]

Between 1985 and 1986, Accolade's revenues grew from $1.5 million to $5 million, thanks to titles such as Ace of Aces, a golf game called Mean 18, and a driving game called Test Drive.[9] Test Drive was created by Distinctive Software, another developer from Canada who had previously ported Accolade's games to other computer systems.[6] The game pioneered the concept of driving exotic cars at the risk of being chased by the police[5] and became one of Accolade's longest lasting and most successful series.[6] In 1987, Frisnia left as CEO and went on to found Three-Sixty Pacific.[10] Miller briefly took over as CEO until Allan Epstein was hired to lead the company in May 1988.[11][12]

A photo of professional golfer Jack Nicklaus
Accolade credits the Jack Nicklaus license with giving them an edge as a sports game publisher.

Accolade continued to earn a strong reputation as a publisher and developer of sports games.[5] As a publisher, their baseball game Hardball went on to become a consistent and prolific series,[13] with later entries created by outside developers such as Chris Taylor.[14] This allowed Whitehead time to develop original titles such as the American football game 4th & Inches, while the company published Steve Cartwright's basketball game Fast Break, as well as Artech's tennis game, Serve & Volley.[5] Most notably, Accolade's biggest success would be in golf.[5] Their golf game Mean 18, developed by Rex Bradford, went on to become the Jack Nicklaus series of games.[6] These games pioneered the "three-click" system seen in most golf games and edged out competitors thanks to the Jack Nicklaus license.[5] By 1990, Accolade released Test Drive III: The Passion,[15] developing the game in-house as the first game in the series with 3D polygon graphics.[5]

At the turn of the decade, Accolade was also exploring other game genres, developing their own graphic adventure game engine to compete with LucasArts and Sierra.[6] Infocom alumni Mike Berlyn created the adventure game Altered Destiny, while Activision veteran Steve Cartwright created the Les Manley series.[6] Around this time, Accolade also gained notoriety as the publisher of the Star Control series of games, created by Paul Reiche III and Fred Ford.[5] Released in 1990 and 1992 respectively, both games received numerous awards.[16] Journalists have listed Star Control among their best games of all time,[17] with Star Control II earning even more "best game" rankings through the 1990s,[18] 2000s,[19] and 2010s.[20] Because Accolade had focused their success around sports games, they accidentally placed a sticker on the box of Star Control II calling it the "Best Sports Game" of 1992.[21][22]

Console and legal challenges[edit]

A screenshot of the message "PRODUCED BY OR UNDER LICENSE FROM SEGA ENTERPRISES LTD."
A screenshot of Sega's Trademark Security System. Accolade reverse engineered the security measure, leading to a landmark legal dispute.

With the rise of a new generation of gaming consoles, Accolade sought to shift towards a market they had previously abandoned.[5] In 1990, Accolade CEO Allan Epstein expressed his opinion that the growing console market was both an opportunity and a challenge, since both the technology and audience were different from that of the computer.[23]

The company soon released several games for the Sega Genesis by reverse-engineering the console's boot-protection.[5] Sega sued Accolade for doing this without their authorization, winning an initial injunction that forced Accolade to remove all Genesis products from store shelves. Accolade, however, won on appeal, setting one of the most important precedents on reverse engineering in software law. Accolade later reached an out of court settlement with Sega that allowed Accolade to continue building their own Genesis cartridges but as an official licensee.[24] One of the conditions of the settlement was that Accolade would develop several games exclusive to Sega consoles, as a way for Sega to maintain an advantage over their rivals.[5]

As Accolade rushed to develop the exclusive games promised to Sega, the company saw the departure of co-founder Bob Whitehead, who felt their games were slipping in quality and that the game industry had become tiresome.[5] CEO Allan Epstein also left in 1991, and Alan Miller once again became the Chief Executive.[25] As the company changed leadership, Accolade published another breakthrough hit with the platform game Bubsy, created by Infocom veteran Mike Berlyn.[5] The Bubsy series of games would eventually be released on consoles for Sega, Nintendo, Atari Jaguar, and eventually PlayStation.[5] Accolade also tried to replicate its advantageous golf license in other sports, including their association football game Pelé! and American football game Mike Ditka Power Football.[5]

The lawsuit with Sega continued to have serious long-term effects for Accolade.[26] Despite succeeding at the Court of Appeals and negotiating an agreement with Sega, the lower court's injunction had interrupted Accolade's sales and development for several months in 1992. Alan Miller estimated that "the commercial damage associated with this injunction ultimately proved to be somewhere around $15 to $25 million",[24] leading the company to report major losses in 1993.[26]

New leadership[edit]

Accolade hired a new CEO in 1994, recruiting the former head of FAO Schwarz, Peter Harris, to help them attract much-needed investment.[26] Alan Miller initially stayed on as chairman and head of product development, but quit the company later in the year to work in medical software, marking the end of the founders' influence.[5][26] Harris led the company's efforts to build a new management team and secure new financing from Time Warner, before leaving to become CEO of the San Francisco 49ers in 1995.[27]

Accolade president Jim Barnett became the new CEO, and largely focused their strategy on extending existing franchises.[5] Barnett earned the praise of the company's board of directors for increasing sales.[28] However, the second and third instalments of the Bubsy series were commercial disappointments, leading Accolade to ask series creator Mike Berlyn to return as the next game's producer.[29] Berlyn worked on Bubsy 3D with a new team, but the 3D technology proved to be a challenge, and Accolade insisted on releasing the game on time.[30] Upon release, the game's technical issues hurt the reputation of the Bubsy series, as well as that of Accolade as a company.[5]

Accolade asked Ford and Reiche to make a third Star Control game at the same budget as Star Control II, which they turned down to pursue other projects.[31] So the publisher licensed Reiche and Ford's copyrighted character designs to make Star Control 3 with a different development team.[32][33] The third edition was not as celebrated as the first two games, with reviewers noting the change in developer.[34][35][36] Still, the 1996 release of Star Control 3 was a modest commercial success for Accolade as a publisher, as was the release of Deadlock that same year.[37] Moreover, Test Drive 4 and Test Drive: Off Road sold well on both PC and the Sony PlayStation, with more than 850,000 and 500,000 sales respectively, making it the top-selling racing series at the time.[38] Jack Nicklaus 5 received positive reviews, but was ultimately a commercial disappointment.[39]

With Accolade experiencing mixed success, Electronic Arts decided to invest in the company in 1997 and agreed to take over their distribution.[40] Accolade planned to preview several upcoming 1998 titles at the Electronic Entertainment Expo, with entries in major series such as HardBall 6, Test Drive 5, Test Drive: Off Road 2, and Star Control 4, as well as two original titles: Redline and Big Air Snowboarding.[38] By the end of the year, Accolade released their sequels to Test Drive as scheduled, while cancelling their plans for a fourth Star Control game.[41][42] Pitbull Syndicate completed development on Big Air, which was released at the start of 1999 after a delay.[43] Development was also completed on Redline, and the driving-and-shooting game was published by Accolade in April.[44]

Acquisition and fate[edit]

Accolade was purchased by French publisher Infogrames in April 1999, as part of the European company's strategy to gain a distribution network in North America.[45] Infogrames paid $50 million to acquire Accolade's workforce of 145 employees, their sports franchises such as Test Drive and Hardball, and Accolade's licensing deals with brands such as Major League Baseball.[46] They retained CEO Jim Barnett to lead a new subsidiary company that became Infogrames North America, combining Accolade's workforce with an Infogrames office of 29 employees.[47] As a result, major franchises such as Test Drive 6 were published under the name Infogrames North America starting in 1999.[48] What followed was a series of acquisitions and consolidations, when Infogrames purchased GT Interactive and renamed it Infogrames Inc.[49] By 2000, Infogrames merged Infogrames North America into Infogrames Inc.[50][51] This marked the end of Infogrames North America as a separate company, and what was left of Accolade as an entity.

Later, Infogrames acquired the Atari brand from Hasbro Interactive in 2001, and slowly re-branded their properties under Atari SA through the decade.[52][49] Atari/Infogrames declared bankruptcy in 2013, with Tommo purchasing the Accolade trademark and several related assets.[53]

In June 2017, Hong Kong-based holding company Billionsoft announced that they had acquired the Accolade trademark, and, together with developer Black Forest Games and publisher Tommo, announced they would resurrect several Accolade franchises, starting with the Bubsy series.[54][55]

List of games[edit]

Complete list of games published and/or developed by Accolade
Game Release Developer Publisher
SunDog: Frozen Legacy[56] 1984 (Apple II) FTL Games Accolade
HardBall![8]
  • 1985 (Apple II, Atari 8-bit, C64)
  • 1986 (Amstrad CPC, MacOS, ZX Spectrum)
  • 1987 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, Atari ST, DOS, MSX)
  • 1991 (Genesis)
Accolade Accolade
Fight Night[7]
  • 1985 (Apple II)
  • 1986 (Atari 8-bit, C64)
  • 1987 (Atari XEGS)
  • 1988 (Atari 7800)
Sydney Development Corporation Accolade
Law of the West[1]
  • 1985 (Apple II, C64)
  • 1987 (NES, PC-88, PC-98)
Accolade Accolade
The Dam Busters[57] 1985 (Apple II, DOS) Sydney Development Corporation Accolade
Psi-5 Trading Company[58]
  • 1986 (C64, DOS)
  • 1987 (Amstrad CPC, Amstrad PCW, ZX Spectrum)
Accolade Accolade
Mean 18[59]
  • 1986 (Amiga, Atari ST, DOS)
  • 1987 (Apple IIGS)
  • 1989 (Atari 7800)
Microsmiths Accolade
Killed Until Dead[60]
  • 1986 (C64)
  • 1987 (Apple II)
Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Ace of Aces[61]
  • 1986 (C64)
  • 1987 (DOS)
  • 1988 (Atari 7800, Atari 8-bit)
Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Accolade Comics[62] 1987 (Apple II, C64) Distinctive Software Accolade
The Train: Escape to Normandy[63]
  • 1987 (Apple II, C64)
  • 1988 (Amstrad CPC, DOS, ZX Spectrum)
Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
4th & Inches[64]
  • 1987 (C64, Apple II)
  • 1988 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, DOS, MacOS)
Accolade Accolade
Pinball Wizard[65]
  • 1987 (DOS)
  • 1988 (Atari ST)
ERE Informatique Accolade
Mini-Putt[66]
  • 1987 (C64, DOS)
  • 1988 (Apple IIGS)
Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Apollo 18: Mission to the Moon[67]
  • 1987 (C64)
  • 1988 (DOS)
Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Power at Sea[63] 1988 (C64) Distinctive Software Accolade
Test Drive[8]
  • 1987 (Amiga, Atari ST, C64, DOS)
  • 1988 (Apple II)
Distinctive Software Accolade
Rack 'Em[68] 1988 (DOS) Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Serve & Volley[69] 1988 (Apple II, Apple IIGS, C64, DOS) Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Fast Break[70]
  • 1988 (C64, DOS)
  • 1989 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, MacOS)
Accolade Accolade
Grand Prix Circuit[71]
  • 1988 (C64, DOS)
  • 1989 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, MacOS)
  • 1990 (Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum)
Distinctive Software Accolade
Card Sharks[72] 1988 (C64) Accolade Accolade
TKO[73]
  • 1988 (C64)
  • 1989 (DOS)
Accolade Electronic Arts
Bubble Ghost[74] 1988 (Amiga, Apple II, Apple IIGS, C64, DOS) ERE Informatique Accolade
Jack Nicklaus' Greatest 18 Holes of Major Championship Golf[75]
  • 1988 (C64, DOS)
  • 1989 (Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Apple IIGS, Atari ST)
  • 1990 (MacOS, TG-16)
Sculptured Software Accolade
Steel Thunder[76] 1988 (C64, DOS) Accolade Accolade
Hardball II[77]
  • 1989 (DOS)
  • 1990 (Amiga, MacOS)
Distinctive Software Accolade
Test Drive II: The Duel[78]
  • 1989 (Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Apple IIGS, C64, DOS, MacOS, ZX Spectrum)
  • 1990 (Atari ST)
  • 1992 (Genesis, SNES)
Distinctive Software Accolade
Blue Angels: Formation Flight Simulation[79]
  • 1989 (Amiga, Atari ST, DOS)
  • 1990 (C64)
Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Day of the Viper[80]
  • 1989 (Amiga, Atari ST)
  • 1990 (DOS)
Accolade Accolade
Don't Go Alone[81] 1989 (DOS) Sterling Silver Software Accolade
The Cycles: International Grand Prix Racing[82]
  • 1989 (Amiga, C64, DOS)
  • 1990 (Amstrad CPC, Mac OS, ZX Spectrum)
Distinctive Software Accolade
The Third Courier[83]
  • 1989 (DOS)
  • 1990 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, Atari ST)
Manley & Associates Accolade
Bar Games[84]
  • 1989 (DOS)
  • 1990 (Amiga)
Accolade Accolade
Strike Aces[85] 1990 (Amiga, DOS) Vektor Grafix Accolade
Test Drive III: The Passion[15] 1990 (DOS) Accolade Accolade
Gunboat[86]
  • 1990 (Amstrad CPC, DOS, ZX Spectrum)
  • 1991 (Amiga)
  • 1992(TG-16)
Accolade Accolade
Heat Wave[87] 1990 (Amiga, Atari ST, Commodore 64, DOS) Artech Digital Entertainment Accolade
Ishido: The Way of Stones[88] 1990 (Amiga, DOS, Genesis, MacOS) Publishing International Accolade
The Game of Harmony[89]
  • 1990 (Amiga, C64, DOS)
  • 1991 (GB)
The Assembly Line Accolade
Altered Destiny[90]
  • 1990 (DOS)
  • 1991 (Amiga)
Accolade Accolade
Stratego[91]
  • 1990 (DOS, MacOS)
  • 1991 (Amiga, Atari ST, C64)
Accolade Accolade
Jack Nicklaus' Unlimited Golf & Course Design[92] 1990 (Amiga, DOS) Sculptured Software Accolade
Elvira: Mistress of the Dark[93]
  • 1990 (Amiga, DOS)
  • 1991 (Atari ST, C64)
Horror Soft Accolade
Les Manley in: Search for the King[94]
  • 1990 (DOS)
  • 1991 (Amiga)
Accolade Accolade
Star Control[95]
  • 1990 (Amiga, Amstrad CPC, DOS)
  • 1991 (C64, ZX Spectrum)
Toys for Bob Accolade
The Games: Winter Challenge[96] 1991 (DOS) MindSpan Accolade
Les Manley in: Lost in L.A.[97] 1991 (DOS) Accolade Accolade
The Cardinal of the Kremlin[98] 1991 Capstone Software Accolade
Turrican[99] 1991 (GB, Genesis, TG-16) Rainbow Arts Accolade
Elvira II: The Jaws of Cerberus[100]
  • 1991 (DOS)
  • 1992 (Amiga, Atari ST)
Horror Soft Accolade
Hoverforce[101] 1991 (DOS) Astral Software Accolade
Mike Ditka Power Football[102] 1991 (DOS, Genesis) Accolade Accolade
The Games: Summer Challenge[102]
  • 1992 (DOS)
  • 1993 (Genesis)
MindSpan Accolade
Jack Nicklaus Golf & Course Design: Signature Edition[103] 1992 (DOS) Sculptured Software Accolade
Waxworks[104]
  • 1992 (Amiga, DOS)
  • 2009 (Windows)
  • 2012 (MacOS)
Horror Soft Accolade
Snoopy's Game Club[105] 1992 (DOS) Accolade Accolade
Universal Soldier[106] 1992 (GB, Genesis) The Code Monkeys Accolade
Grand Prix Unlimited[107] 1992 (DOS) Accolade Accolade
Zyconix[108] 1992 (Amiga, DOS) Miracle Games Accolade
HardBall III[109]
  • 1992 (DOS)
  • 1993 (Genesis)
  • 1994 (SNES)
MindSpan Accolade
Star Control II[110]
  • 1992 (DOS)
  • 1994 (3DO)
Toys for Bob Accolade
WarpSpeed[111]
  • 1992 (SNES)
  • 1993 (Genesis)
Accolade Accolade
Speed Racer in The Challenge of Racer X[112] 1993 (DOS) Accolade Accolade
Bubsy in Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind[113] 1993 (Genesis, SNES) Accolade Accolade
Pelé![114] 1993 (Genesis) Radical Entertainment Accolade
Unnecessary Roughness[79] 1993 (DOS) Accolade Accolade
Unnecessary Roughness '95[115] 1994 (DOS, Genesis) Accolade Accolade
Ballz[116] 1994 (Genesis, SNES, 3DO) PF Magic Accolade
Battle Isle 2200[117] 1994 (DOS) Blue Byte Accolade
Bubsy II[118] 1994 (GB, Genesis, SNES) Accolade, Images Software (GB) Accolade
Cyclemania[119] 1994 (DOS) Compro Games Accolade
Barkley Shut Up and Jam![120] 1994 (Genesis, SNES) Accolade Accolade
Brett Hull Hockey '95[121]
  • 1994 (Genesis, SNES)
  • 1995 (DOS)
Radical Entertainment Accolade
HardBall IV[122] 1994 (DOS, Genesis) MindSpan Accolade
Pelé II: World Tournament Soccer[102] 1994 (Genesis) Radical Entertainment Accolade
Zero Tolerance[123] 1994 (Genesis) Technopop Accolade
Combat Cars[124] 1994 (Genesis) Accolade Accolade
Speed Racer in My Most Dangerous Adventures[125] 1994 (SNES) Radical Entertainment Accolade
HardBall 5[126]
  • 1995 (DOS, Genesis)
  • 1996 (PS1)
MindSpan Accolade
Barkley Shut Up and Jam! 2[127] 1995 (Genesis) Accolade Accolade
Unnecessary Roughness '96[128] 1995 (DOS) Accolade Accolade
Star Control 3[129] 1996 (DOS) Legend Entertainment Accolade
Eradicator[130]
  • 1996 (DOS)
  • 2014 (Linux, MacOS, Windows)
Accolade Accolade (DOS), Night Dive Studios
Deadlock: Planetary Conquest[37]
  • 1996 (Windows, Windows 3.x)
  • 1997 (MacOS)
Accolade Accolade, MacSoft (MacOS)
PO'ed[131] 1996 (PS1) Any Channel Accolade
Pitball[132] 1996 (PS1) Warner Interactive Entertainment Accolade
Bubsy 3D[133] 1996 (PS1) Eidetic Accolade
Test Drive: Off-Road[134] 1997 (DOS, PS1) Elite Systems (DOS), Motivetime Ltd. Accolade
Jack Nicklaus 4[135] 1997 (Windows) Cinematronics, LLC Accolade
Jack Nicklaus 5[136] 1997 (Windows 3.x) Eclipse Entertainment Accolade
Test Drive 4[137] 1997 (PS1, Windows) Pitbull Syndicate Limited Accolade
Deadlock II: Shrine Wars[138] 1998 (Windows) Cyberlore Studios Accolade
Test Drive 5[139] 1998 (PS1, Windows) Pitbull Syndicate Limited Accolade
Test Drive: Off-Road 2 1998 (PS1, Windows) Accolade Accolade
HardBall 6[140] 1998 (Windows) MindSpan Accolade
Big Air[43] 1998 (PS1) Pitbull Syndicate Limited Accolade
Redline[44] 1999 (Windows) Beyond Games Accolade
Slave Zero[141] 1999 (Dreamcast, Windows) Infogrames North America Infogrames North America
Test Drive 6[48] 1999 (Dreamcast, Game Boy Color, PS1, Windows) Pitbull Syndicate Limited Infogrames North America
Test Drive: Off-Road 3[142] 1999 (Windows) Infogrames North America Infogrames North America

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Retro Gamer Team (December 5, 2013). "Accolade Profile". Retro Gamer. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  2. ^ a b Fleming, Jeffrey (July 30, 2007). "The History Of Activision". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  3. ^ Edge Staff (August 24, 2006). "A Short History Of Activision". Edge. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
  4. ^ Velasquez, Manuel G. (2006). Business Ethics: Concepts & Cases. Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-193007-0.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Bevan, Mike (January 2009). "From the Archives: Accolade". Retro Gamer. No. 59. pp. 80–87.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k DeMaria, Rusel (December 7, 2018). High Score! Expanded: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games. CRC Press (3rd ed.). ISBN 978-0-429-77139-2. Archived from the original on April 28, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d Ferrell, Keith (December 1987). "The Commodore Games That Live On And On". Compute's Gazette. pp. 18–22. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  8. ^ a b c Worley, Joyce (December 1989). "Mega Hits: The Best of the Best". Video Games & Computer Entertainment. pp. 130–132, 137, 138.
  9. ^ Wilson, Johnny L. (November 1991). "A History of Computer Games - Accolade". Computer Gaming World. No. 88. pp. 22–24.
  10. ^ Ferrell, Keith (November 1987). "The Future of Computer Games: Ten Industry Leaders Speak Out". Compute!. No. 90. p. 14. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  11. ^ Staff (May 1987). "Industry News". Computer Gaming World. No. 37. p. 10. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  12. ^ Watson, Lloyd (May 9, 1988). "Vertical Coordination for a Vertical Mall". San Francisco Chronicle. p. B5.
  13. ^ Slaven, Andy (2002). Video Game Bible, 1985–2002. Trafford Publishing. pp. 250–251. ISBN 978-1-55369-731-2.
  14. ^ Saltzman, Marc (2000). Game Design: Secrets of the Sages. Brady Games. p. 425. ISBN 978-1-56686-987-4.
  15. ^ a b Wilson, David M. (April 1991). "A Passionate Tryst with Speed". Computer Gaming World. p. 51. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  16. ^ Szczepaniak, John (2005). "Control & Conquer" (PDF). Retro Gamer. pp. 85–87. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  17. ^ Polygon Staff (November 29, 2017). "500 Best Games of All Time". Polygon. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ Dubbin, Rob (June 30, 2015). "Classic Game Postmortem: Star Control". Game Developers Conference. 46:00–47:00. Retrieved October 22, 2020 – via YouTube.
  22. ^ Kasavin, Greg (June 27, 2003). "Greatest Games of All Time - Star Control II (Interview Feature)". GameSpot. Archived from the original on March 5, 2005. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
  23. ^ Staff (December 1990). "Fusion, Transfusion, or Confusion: Future Directions in Computer Entertainment" (PDF). Computer Gaming World. No. 77. p. 26. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  24. ^ a b Kent, Steven L. (2001). "The Ultimate History Of Video Games Revisited". Three Rivers Press. pp. 381–388. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  25. ^ Watson, Lloyd (November 8, 1991). "50 Years of Horseplay, Politics and Show Biz at the Cow Palace". San Francisco Chronicle. p. C3.
  26. ^ a b c d Evenson, Laura; Marshall, Jonathan (May 4, 1994). "Former Head of FAO Schwarz Turns From Toys to Video Games". San Francisco Chronicle. p. C3.
  27. ^ Emert, Carol (July 13, 2000). "New Chief May Score Big / As 49ers CEO, Peter Harris brings business savvy to top post". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 18, 2021 – via SFGate.
  28. ^ Durkin, Alan (April 28, 2000). "Accolade's Jim Barnett Becomes Chairman". GameSpot. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  29. ^ "Bubsy 3D". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 83. June 1996. p. 49.
  30. ^ Wirtanen, Josh (December 1, 2015). "A Chat with Bubsy's Michael Berlyn Part 1: The Rise and Fall of Bubsy". Retrovolve. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  31. ^ Barton, Mark (April 19, 2016). Honoring the Code: Conversations with Great Game Designers. CRC Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-4665-6754-2.
  32. ^ O'Connor, Alice (February 23, 2018). "Star Control lead devs fire back at Stardock lawsuit". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
  33. ^ Nirvi, Niko (March 21, 2006). "Star Control - Kontrollin aikakirjat". Pelit. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
  34. ^ Booker, Logan (January 12, 2013). "Relive The Glory Of Star Control II In Delicious High Definition With Ur-Quan Masters HD". Kotaku. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
  35. ^ DeMaria, Rusel (December 7, 2018). High Score! Expanded: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (3rd ed.). CRC Press. p. 116–117. ISBN 978-0-429-77139-2.
  36. ^ Kalata, Kurt (September 11, 2018). "Star Control 3". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  37. ^ a b Staff (November 1996). "Accolade Rebounds". PC Gamer US. Archived from the original on October 12, 1997. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  38. ^ a b Duncan, Alan (April 28, 2000). "Accolade's Crystal Ball". GameSpot. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  39. ^ McDonald, Tim (May 7, 1999). "Jack Nicklaus 6: Golden Bear Challenge Review". GameSpot. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  40. ^ Staff (June 1997). "Inside Scoop". GamePro. No. 105. p. 18. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  41. ^ Dunkin, Alan (April 28, 2000). "Star Control 4 Renamed". GameSpot. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  42. ^ IGN Staff (October 6, 1998). "Accolade's Starcon Cancelled". IGN. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  43. ^ a b Harris, Craig (March 30, 1999). "Big Air". IGN. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  44. ^ a b Smith, Josh (May 3, 1999). "Redline Review". GameSpot. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  45. ^ IGN Staff (April 19, 1999). "Infogrames Takes Accolade". IGN. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  46. ^ Mullen, Micheal (April 27, 2000). "Infogrames Buys Accolade". GameSpot. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  47. ^ IGN Staff (May 10, 1999). "Accolade's Barnett to Head Infogrames US". IGN. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  48. ^ a b Mosquera, Fernando "Lagi" (November 24, 1999). "REVIEW for Test Drive 6 (DC)". GameFan. Archived from the original on January 26, 2000. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  49. ^ a b Graft, Kris (September 15, 2006). "Where Did Atari Go So Wrong?". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on November 23, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  50. ^ Ahmed, Shahed (May 17, 2006). "Infogrames Consolidates North American Operations". GameSpot. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  51. ^ Ahmed, Shahed (May 17, 2006). "Infogrames Completes Merger". GameSpot. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  52. ^ "Infogrames to Acquire Hasbro Interactive". IGN. December 6, 2000. Archived from the original on November 19, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  53. ^ "Purchase Agreement between Atari, Inc. and Rebellion Developments, Stardock & Tommo" (PDF). BMC Group. July 22, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  54. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (June 8, 2017). "Accolade brand returns with a new Bubsy game". gamesindustry.biz. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  55. ^ O'Connor, Alice (October 13, 2018). "Bubsy: Paws On Fire taking the rubbo bobcat autorunning". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  56. ^ Williams, Gregg (May 1986). "Atari Playfield". Computer Gaming World. p. 26. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
  57. ^ Brooks, M. Evan (April 1987). "Kilobyte Was Here!". Computer Gaming World. p. 6.
  58. ^ Wilson, Johnny (June–July 1986). "Psi-5 Trading Company". Computer Gaming World. p. 16. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  59. ^ Wilson, David M.; Wilson, Johnny L. (April 1988). "The Boys of Spring: A Computer Sports Survey". Computer Gaming World. Vol. 1 no. 46. p. 12.
  60. ^ Wagner, Roy (May 1987). "Killed Until Dead". Computer Gaming World. Vol. 1 no. 37. pp. 14–15.
  61. ^ "U.S. Gold Games". IGN. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  62. ^ Sylvester, Jasper (June–July 1987). "Accolade's Comics". Computer Gaming World. pp. 32–33.
  63. ^ a b Brooks, M. Evan (December 1991). "Computer Strategy and Wargames: The 1900–1950 Epoch / Part II (M–Z) of an Annotated Paiktography". Computer Gaming World. p. 126. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  64. ^ Lee, Wyatt (December 1987). "The Electronic Gridiron". Computer Gaming World. p. 16.
  65. ^ Lendino, Jamie (2019). Faster Than Light: The Atari ST and the 16-Bit Revolution. Steel Gear Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN 9781732355217. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  66. ^ Hensley, David (May 1988). "Reviews - Fast Looks - Mini-Putt". Compute!. No. 96. p. 57.
  67. ^ Wilson, David M. (February 1988). "Apollo 18: Mission to the Moon". Computer Gaming World. Vol. 1 no. 44. pp. 20–21.
  68. ^ Jarratt, Steve (March 1989). "Rack 'Em reviewed on IBM PC". Advanced Computer Entertainment. No. 18. p. 64. Archived from the original on October 7, 2016.
  69. ^ DeMaria, Rusel (April 1989). "For the True Tennis Fan". Computer Play Magazine. p. 22.
  70. ^ Moss, Richard (March 22, 2018). The Secret History of Mac Gaming. Unbound Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78352-487-7.
  71. ^ Ardai, Charles; Werger, Barry (March 1989). "Once Around The Block". Computer Gaming World. pp. 45–46.
  72. ^ Staff (May 1988). "Big Deal - Card Sharks". The Games Machine. No. 6. p. 66.
  73. ^ Staff (December 27, 2013). "TKO". Retro Gamer. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
  74. ^ Stovall, Rawson L (February 1989). "Don't Blow It Out". Computer Play. p. 36.
  75. ^ Minson, John (August 1989). "Jack Nicklaus' Greatest 18 Holes of Major Championship Golf: Accolade's Big Bear takes on Leaderboard". ACE. p. 44. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  76. ^ Lee, Wyatt (December 1988). "Don't Tread On Me!: Accolade's 'Steel Thunder' Modern Armor". Computer Gaming World. Vol. 1 no. 54. pp. 8–9.
  77. ^ Walker, Brian (June 1990). "Computer Games". Games International. No. 15. p. 50.
  78. ^ Lee, Wyatt (April 1989). "Computer Cavalcade of Sports". Computer Gaming World. p. 32.
  79. ^ a b Staff (November 1996). "150 Best (and 50 Worst) Games of All Time". Computer Gaming World. No. 148. pp. 84, 94.
  80. ^ Software Reviews on File. Facts on File, Incorporated. 1991. pp. 422–423.
  81. ^ Perron, Bernard (May 31, 2018). The World of Scary Video Games: A Study in Videoludic Horror. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 442. ISBN 978-1-5013-1622-7.
  82. ^ Dille, Ed (November 1990). "The Cycles: International Grand Prix Racing". Video Games & Computer Entertainment. pp. 211–213.
  83. ^ Owens, Dennis (April 1990). "Review - The Third Courier". Computer Gaming World. No. 70. pp. 24, 26.
  84. ^ Cobbett, Richard (April 4, 2020). "Crapshoot: If you can't go to a bar in real life, Bar Games is not a good replacement". PC Gamer. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
  85. ^ Brooks, M. Evan (January 1994). "War In Our Time / A Survey Of Wargames From 1950–2000". Computer Gaming World. pp. 194–212. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  86. ^ Brooks, M. Evan (June 1992). "The Modern Games: 1950–2000". Computer Gaming World. p. 120. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  87. ^ Lee, Wyatt (May 1990). "What's New In Sports Games". Computer Gaming World. No. 71. p. 26.
  88. ^ Ackelson, Caitlin; Emrich, Alan (January 1991). "Only the Oracle Knows ... / A Review of Accolade's Ishido". Computer Gaming World. p. 19. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  89. ^ Sheffield, Richard (January 1991). "Reviews - The Game of Harmony". Compute!. No. 125. p. 94.
  90. ^ Scorpia (December 1990). "Scorpia Experiences An Altered Destiny". Computer Gaming World. p. 46. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
  91. ^ Emrich, Alan (January 1991). "Thus Passes the Glory of the World - Accolade's Stratego". Computer Gaming World. No. 78. pp. 50, 68.
  92. ^ Prosise, Jeff (December 11, 1990). "Accolade and Jack Nicklaus Team Up on Golf Simulation". PC Magazine. pp. 605–606. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  93. ^ Wesolowski, Leah (May 1991). "More Than a Game, It's a Double Feature!". Computer Gaming World. p. 34. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  94. ^ Wilson, Johnny L. (July 1990). "Sneak Preview: SEARCH FOR THE KING: Accolade Unleashes Graphic Adventures". Computer Gaming World. pp. 16–18.
  95. ^ Kalata, Kurt (September 11, 2018). "Star Control". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  96. ^ Masterson, Eric (February 1992). "The Icing on the Slope". Computer Gaming World. p. 59. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  97. ^ Cobbett, Richard (October 20, 2019). "Crapshoot: Les Manley returns even though nobody wanted him to for Lost in LA". PC Gamer. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  98. ^ Greenberg, Allen L (November 1991). "Red Team Dreaming". Computer Gaming World. No. 88. pp. 114–115.
  99. ^ "Readers' Top 100 Games of All Time". Your Sinclair. September 1993.
  100. ^ Scorpia (March 1992). "Scorpion's Tale". Computer Gaming World. p. 36. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  101. ^ Staff (October 1992). "Gamer's Guide to Science Fiction - Hoverforce". Electronic Games. p. 57.
  102. ^ a b c Weiss, Brett (July 9, 2018). Classic Home Video Games, 1989–1990: A Complete Guide to Sega Genesis, Neo Geo and TurboGrafx-16 Games. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-9231-2.
  103. ^ Dille, H.E. (August 1992). "The Golden Bear Gets A Facelift". Computer Gaming World. pp. 30–31, 40–41. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  104. ^ Miller, Chuck (February 1993). "Accolade's Waxworks". Computer Gaming World. p. 50. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  105. ^ Aycock, Heidi E. H. (November 1992). "A Perfect Playground". PC Games. pp. 36–38.
  106. ^ Hamza, Kati (January 1991). "Man and Superman". The One. No. 28. pp. 40–42.
  107. ^ Lee, Wyatt (July 1992). "ManSell DOS and a Capelli Harmony". Computer Gaming World. No. 96. pp. 38–39.
  108. ^ Linden, Tuija (January 1993). "Intohimona Tetris - Zyconix". Pelit. p. 49.
  109. ^ Rogers, Win (August 1992). "Accolade's Al Michaels Announces Hardball III". Computer Gaming World. pp. 78–79. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved July 3, 2014.
  110. ^ Kalata, Kurt (September 11, 2018). "Star Control II". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  111. ^ Staff (June 1993). "WarpSpeed - Review". Electronic Gaming Monthly. p. 150. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  112. ^ Schuytema, Paul C. (January 1994). "Accolade's Speed Racer: The Winner's Circle Or The Pits?". Computer Gaming World. pp. 18–19.
  113. ^ Kalata, Kurt (September 25, 2017). "Bubsy: Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  114. ^ Ahmet, Deniz. "Review - Pelé!". Computer Video Games (UK). No. 147. p. 71.
  115. ^ Staff (April 1994). "The PC Gamer Top 50 PC Games of All Time". PC Gamer UK. No. 5. pp. 43–56.
  116. ^ "Finals". Next Generation. No. 9. September 1995. p. 90.
  117. ^ Abbott, Richard (1994). "Battle Isle 2 review". Game Bytes.
  118. ^ Hardin, John Wesley (September 1994). "BUBSY II: Bubsy and the twins go for all the marbles". Electronic Games. p. 45.
  119. ^ Goble, Gordon (January 1995). "Lean Down On Your Steel Knees and Play". Computer Gaming World. No. 126. pp. 161–164.
  120. ^ Rules, Ben (August 1994). "The Sports Page - Sir Charles Controls The Streets - Barkley: Shut Up and Jam!". GamePro. No. 61. p. 104.
  121. ^ Perry, Kevin; Chapmen, Ted; Kaiafas, Tasos (June 1995). "Hull Shoots and It's Off the Post". Computer Game Review. Archived from the original on December 21, 1996. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  122. ^ "Finals". Next Generation. No. 7. July 1995. p. 70.
  123. ^ "ProReview: Zero Tolerance". GamePro. No. 74. November 1994. p. 84.
  124. ^ Weiss, Brett (July 9, 2018). Classic Home Video Games, 1989–1990: A Complete Guide to Sega Genesis, Neo Geo and TurboGrafx-16 Games. McFarland. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7864-9231-2.
  125. ^ "ProReview: Speed Racer in My Most Dangerous Adventures". GamePro. No. 62. September 1994. p. 98.
  126. ^ "Finals". Next Generation. No. 19. July 1996. p. 74.
  127. ^ "Barkley Rebounds with Sharper Graphics". GamePro. No. 81. June 1995. p. 92.
  128. ^ Foster, Hugo (May 2, 2000). "Unnecessary Roughness '96 Review". GameSpot. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
  129. ^ Kalata, Kurt (September 11, 2018). "Star Control 3". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  130. ^ Staff (December 5, 1996). "Eradicator Review". GameSpot. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  131. ^ "ProReview: PO'ed". GamePro. No. 90. March 1996. p. 66.
  132. ^ "Finals". Next Generation. No. 25. January 1997. p. 174.
  133. ^ "PlayStation ProReview: Bubsy 3D". GamePro. No. 100. January 1997. p. 102.
  134. ^ The Rookie (June 1997). "PlayStation ProReview: Test Drive: Off-Road". GamePro. No. 105. p. 69.
  135. ^ May, Scott A. (September 1997). "Double Eagle: Accolade Drives to Perfection With the Stunning, Deep Jack Nicklaus 4". Computer Gaming World. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  136. ^ Thomas, Chet (December 4, 1997). "Jack Nicklaus 5". GameSpot. Archived from the original on July 7, 2003. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  137. ^ Fatt, Boba (December 1997). "PlayStation ProReview: Test Drive 4". GamePro. No. 111. p. 154.
  138. ^ Trotter, William R. (May 1998). "Deadlock II: The Shrine Wars [sic]". PC Gamer. Vol. 5 no. 5. Archived from the original on November 14, 1999. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  139. ^ Ryan, Michael E. (January 4, 1999). "Test Drive 5 Review (PC)". GameSpot. Archived from the original on August 9, 2003. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  140. ^ Poole, Stephen (May 13, 1998). "Hardball 6 Review [date mislabeled as "May 1, 2000"]". GameSpot. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  141. ^ Peterson, Erik (November 22, 1999). "Slave Zero (PC)". IGN. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  142. ^ Bannister, Paul (November 24, 1999). "Test Drive: Off-Road 3 Review (PC) [date mislabeled as "May 2, 2000"]". GameSpot. Archived from the original on May 26, 2005. Retrieved February 4, 2019.