Ace Attorney

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For the first video game in the series, see Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney. For the film adaptation, see Ace Attorney (film).
Ace Attorney
Ace Attorney Logo.png
The logo of the series, used from the second game onwards.
The logo uses the words Ace Attorney in large fonts, accompanied by the name and silhouette of the protagonist.
Genres Adventure, visual novel
Developers Capcom
Publishers Capcom
Nintendo Australia/THQ (Australia)
Creators Shu Takumi
Platforms Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, Windows, Wii, iOS, Nintendo 3DS, Android
Platform of origin Game Boy Advance
First release Gyakuten Saiban (later remade and released in English as Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney)
October 11, 2001
Latest release Dai Gyakuten Saiban: Naruhodō Ryūnosuke no Bōken
July 9, 2015
Ace Attorney: I Object to that Truth!
A-1 Pictures - Gyakuten Saiban.png
(Gyakuten Saiban ~So no Shinjitsu..Igi Ari!~)
Genre Mystery, Drama
Anime television series
Directed by Ayumu Watanabe
Written by Atsuhiro Tomioka
Music by Kaoru Wada
Studio A-1 Pictures
Network NNS (ytv)
Original run April 2, 2016Scheduled
Anime and Manga portal

Ace Attorney, also known as Phoenix Wright and in Japan as Gyakuten Saiban (逆転裁判?, lit. "Turnabout Trial"), is a series of visual novel legal thriller adventure video games, created by Shu Takumi[1] and developed and published by Capcom, in which players assume the role of a defense attorney in a fictional courtroom setting, which is based on the Japanese legal system, to strive to find their clients "not guilty" using investigation, evidence, and cross-examination to prove their case. The series primarily focuses on the protagonist, Phoenix Wright, a passionate lawyer who seeks out the truth and defends his clients to the end, with later games sometimes featuring other protagonists.

The first three games in the series, originally released exclusively in Japan between 2001 and 2004 for the Game Boy Advance, were ported to the Nintendo DS, taking advantage of features such as touchscreen control, and localized into other regions. These games have also been ported to other formats, such as PC, WiiWare, and iOS. Subsequent titles were developed for the Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS systems. To date, there have been five main games in the series, with a sixth game currently in development, as well as the prequel Dai Gyakuten Saiban: Naruhodō Ryūnosuke no Bōken, two Investigations spin-off games and a cross-over title, Professor Layton vs. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney.

The series has also been adapted into other media, such as manga, stage plays, musicals, and a film adaptation, directed by Takashi Miike and released in 2012. A TV anime series based on the franchise is planned to premiere in April 2016.



The game takes place in an urban city set in 2016 and later; for the Japanese versions, this city is somewhere in Japan, while the North American and European localization places the games in Los Angeles, California.[2] Localization differences will sometimes reflect the differences between these societies, for example the side of a car the driver's wheel is on. Additionally, the names of characters have been adapted for localization; for example, the main character of "Ryūichi Naruhodō", whose family name, "Naruhodō", is a pun on the Japanese phrase for "I see", has been renamed in the Western versions as "Phoenix Wright", referencing the phoenix that rises from its own ashes, and a homophone of the word "right".[2]

Characters and story[edit]

Each game has its own individual plot but the characters and their relationships remain intertwined throughout the series.

In the first three games, the main playable character is Phoenix Wright. He is a rookie lawyer fresh out of law school in the first game, taking a position at Fey & Co. Law Offices run by Mia Fey, a defense attorney that helped to acquit Wright of murder several years prior to the events of the first game. When Mia is murdered, Wright takes over the offices with the assistance of Maya Fey, Mia's younger sister, and renames the office "Wright & Co. Law Offices". The women of the Fey family have the ability to channel spirits, which sometimes allows Maya or her much younger cousin Pearl Fey to channel Mia's spirit to help Wright in court. Wright develops a rivalry with prosecuting attorney Miles Edgeworth, his former childhood friend, as they oppose each other in court, and is both helped and hindered in his investigations by police detective Dick Gumshoe. Wright's victories over Edgeworth (along with Wright's victory over prosecutor Manfred von Karma) introduces a third prosecutor to combat Phoenix in court, Franziska von Karma, who sees Edgeworth as a younger brother (despite actually being several years younger than he is). She is determined to succeed where her father and Edgeworth failed by winning against Phoenix in court. In the third game, Phoenix's main rival in court is Godot, a mysterious prosecutor who holds some kind of grudge against him. Also more info related to Phoenix, Mia and other members of the Fey family is unveiled, intertwining with the events from the previous games until the last case, which closes the Phoenix Wright chapters of the Ace Attorney series.

The fourth game shifts seven years after the first three games. Phoenix, having been disbarred for unknowingly using falsified evidence, has become a piano player, adopted a young magician named Trucy, and has transformed the office to the "Wright Talent Agency". When he is accused of murder, he spies the upcoming and talented defense attorney Apollo Justice with his "Chords of Steel" and has him defend him as well as hiring him, forcing the office to be renamed "Wright Anything Agency". While Apollo and Trucy handle cases, Phoenix still works with ties to the justice system to implement changes that will help improve the courts, including the introduction of a "Jurist System" that leaves the decision of guilt or innocence to a six-panel jury, while investigating the remaining mysteries involving his last case seven years before. In the fifth game, Phoenix regains his lawyer license and recruits a new rookie attorney, Athena Cykes, who has the ability to detect hidden emotions in witness testimonies. The Japan-exclusive side game, Dai Gyakuten Saiban, takes place in the late 19th century and focuses on Phoenix's ancestor, Ryūnosuke Naruhodō, who brings about a new age of justice.

Set between Trials and Tribulations and Apollo Justice, the Investigations series features Miles Edgeworth as the main character. While and after returning from a trip to Europe, Miles is thrown in a series of incidents tied to a mysterious smuggling ring also involved in the creation and distribution of counterfeit money and art pieces, and later gets caught up in a movement intended to remove weak prosecutors from duty. The games also feature returning characters like Gumshoe, Franziska, and rookie detective Ema Skye. Key characters exclusive to these games include Kay Faraday, who claims to be the successor of the legendary thief Yatagarasu, and Shi-Long Lang, an interpol agent who for some reason despises prosecutors. One of the cases is a flashback featuring Miles and Franziska's mentor Manfred Von Karma and depicting Miles' first encounter with Kay and Gumshoe, while another recalls the last case tried by Miles' father, Gregory Edgeworth, before his murder.

Court system[edit]

The court system in the Ace Attorney games is strongly influenced from the civil law inquisitorial system of Japan as opposed to adversarial system of common law countries.[3] In Japan, being convicted of a crime once legally accused is almost certain, and many defense attorneys may never win an acquittal throughout their career.[3] The conviction rate in Japan, higher than much of the rest of the world's, has been suggested to be a result of prosecution departments, running with low budgets, selecting only the most likely cases for achieving conviction to bring to the courts, according to Profs. John Mark Ramseyer and Eric Rasmusen.[4]

However, a key difference from real-world Japanese courts is that under the system in the series, all trials have a maximum duration of three days before a verdict must be reached.[5] It is stated that this has not always been the case in the fictional universe, however; in Gyakuten Kenji 2, 15 years before the events of the first game, the court case for the IS-7 incident is noted to have taken over a year, due to predating the introduction of the 3-day limit.[6]

This situation is presented within the Ace Attorney games in which within each case, there is overwhelming evidence of guilt and the various prosecutors the player encounters are full of confidence concerning the outcome of the trial as evidenced by their arrogant mannerisms.[3] As such, the defense attorneys (Phoenix, Mia, Apollo, and Athena) are initially treated poorly by the prosecutor and judge, and must avoid pursuing a dead-end line of questioning in the cross-examination of witnesses to avoid premature closure of the trial by the inquisitorial judge. As judges are inquisitors under the inquisitorial system, and are able to actively examine the evidence, failure by the defense to show the merit of continuing cross examination would result in the impatient judge dismissing the continuation of the case (and game over). Similarly, the police, represented by characters such as Dick Gumshoe, are shown to be compassionate but incompetent, much to the prosecutors' dismay.[3]


Phoenix Wright issues an objection at the witness during a court case; the "Objection!" speech balloon has become an iconic element of the series

The games in the Ace Attorney series are primarily adventure games, though they require the player to collect evidence and to present it to the witnesses when they are in court. The game is presented primarily using animated two-dimensional manga-like sprites (although from Dual Destinies onward 3D models with a similar style are used), with text dialog, sound effects, and minimal spoken clips to simulate speech. Each game is made up of four or five cases with the games and the cases have some interconnection, recurring minor characters or similar crime elements. The game can be saved and resumed from any point.

There are two phases to each case, Investigation and Courtroom sessions. Investigation includes the ability to visit several key locations in the case and talk to people involved with it while searching for evidence by examining the scene; the second and third game also introduced the "Psyche-Lock," a system through which the defending attorney can break mental barriers to learn the truth from uncooperative witnesses during investigation. Players can present both evidence and, in the second and third games, profiles of people involved with the case.

Courtroom sessions are generally made up of testimonies consisting of statements by witnesses. The player may cross-examine the witness to locate a contradiction by showing a piece of evidence that relates to what the witness has testified. The player may also "Press" the witness, asking the witness to clarify a statement. Sometimes pressing and presenting evidence will lead to additional statements added to the testimony. Presenting evidence successfully may also lead to new lines of testimony altogether and it is almost always the only way to proceed in the game. Occasionally the player will have to specifically prove their allegations, either through presentation of more evidence, or more careful examination of existing evidence. In the fourth game, the game introduces the Perceive system, which is active during some cross-examinations. During testimony, the player can activate the Perceive system to look closely at body language and actions that trigger when the witnesses state something untruthful (for example, their hands may twitch or they may swallow), and thus force the witnesses to respond truthfully. The fifth game introduces the Mood Matrix system, which allows the defense to analyze the given testimony and pinpoint conflicting emotions, signalling contradictions or false memories from witnesses. Using the Mood Matrix allows a witness to get a grip on their emotions and allows them to testify clearly and truthfully.

As the defense, the goal of the player is usually to have a "Not Guilty" verdict handed down to their defendant. Most of the trials in the game last two days, with three as the maximum, between which the player can visit or revisit areas relevant to the trial to obtain more evidence or information. Throughout the trial process the player must determine through the information acquired the true perpetrator of the crime in order to absolve their client of any blame.

Presenting evidence is accompanied by the defense attorney pointing with his finger, as in the game's logo, and shouting "Objection!" (異議あり! Igi ari!?), accompanied by a word bubble of the same word, both which have become iconic representation of the series. If the player presents the wrong evidence, attempts to present at the wrong time, or fails other parts of in-court questioning, they lose some measure of acceptance by the judge, represented by exclamation marks in the first game (same for the crossover title with Professor Layton, which uses exclamation marks for the first trial and shield icons for the rest of the trials) and a life bar in subsequent titles (except the crossover title, as previously mentioned). If the player is wrong too many times, the case will be declared over with a guilty verdict for the accused, and the player will have to restart from their last save point or the beginning of the court session.

Additionally, after some trials end, the player may be asked to present a piece of evidence that further explains part of the story. For example, Larry Butz is broken-hearted after he discovers his girlfriend, the victim, was cheating on him. Presenting a certain piece of evidence will make him feel better by understanding more about what she really thought of him.

In the DS remakes, the game utilizes the touchscreen in addition to the normal controls, and also the microphone, allowing the player to shout "Objection!", "Hold it!", "Take that!", "Gotcha!" or "Eureka!" at the appropriate times, though they can also select these options via more common entry methods. The remake of the first game for the DS included a brand new fifth case created specifically for the remake, with additional aspects of gameplay that fully used the DS special features; for example, one could dust for fingerprints by tapping the screen to apply fingerprinting powder, then blowing at the DS microphone gently to blow them away, or by using the 3D capabilities of the DS to render the collected evidence; key details concerning the evidence are often revealed this way. The fourth game of the series, which is the first game developed completely for the DS without a prior GBA release, also includes a number of these elements. In the WiiWare versions, players will be able to fling the Wii Remote forward like Phoenix's finger in order to shout "Objection!"

The two Investigations games, while split into cases, follow a less rigid structure as the events of each case occur prior to the official trial and generally right after the crime has been committed, though feature a similar two-phase approach of investigation and cross-examination. In one phase, the player controls the main character (Edgeworth) in moving around a single room to investigate clues or to talk to witnesses. During this time, Edgeworth may recognize some key facts forming the basis of the games' Logic system. When the player believes two facts are connected, they can "join" these facts to create a new line of reasoning; connecting the wrong pieces will impact Edgeworth's concentration, with too many missed guesses causing the game to be over. Subsequently, Edgeworth will engage with characters through cross-examination, which otherwise is similar to the courtroom version. Other elements of gameplay include "Logic Chess" introduced in the second Investigations game (a metaphorical chess battle which is essentially a timed argument against another character) and crime scene recreation using "Little Thief" in both installments (a holographic device that can project elements as determined by its owner).


Timeline of release years
2001 Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
2002 Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Justice for All
2004 Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Trials and Tribulations
2007 Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney
2009 Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth
2011 Gyakuten Kenji 2
2012 Professor Layton vs. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
2013 Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Dual Destinies
2015 Dai Gyakuten Saiban: Naruhodō Ryūnosuke no Bōken
2016 Gyakuten Saiban 6 (Ace Attorney 6)

The original Ace Attorney trilogy, known in Japan as Gyakuten Saiban, were originally released in Japan for the Game Boy Advance between 2001 and 2004.[7] An enhanced port of the first game, titled Gyakuten Saiban: Yomigaeru Gyakuten (逆転裁判 蘇る逆転?, lit. Turnabout Trial: Turnabout Rebirth), was released for Nintendo DS in 2005. Along with enhanced features and an additional episode exclusive to the DS version, the game also featured an English language option, making the game a popular import title. The English version was soon released in North America under the name Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney, with a European release to follow. Following the popularity of the port, DS-enhanced versions of Gyakuten Saiban 2 and 3 were released as budget titles in Japan, which also included English language options, and were later released in Western markets. The fourth game, Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney, being the first in the series specifically developed for the Nintendo DS, did not include an English language option upon release in Japan. The fifth game, Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Dual Destinies, was developed for the Nintendo 3DS.

Main series[edit]

Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
The original GBA game was released in 2001, with the Japanese and English DS ports in 2005. The game's story introduces Phoenix Wright, Mia and Maya Fey, and Miles Edgeworth, along with other minor characters that reappear in later games. The original GBA game contained four cases; a special fifth case named "Rise from the Ashes" was made for the DS version that utilized additional investigation techniques that relied on the features of the DS, such as the microphone and touchscreen. This game has also been ported to the iPhone and iPod, and is available through the iTunes App Store. As of May 30, 2013, the entire trilogy has been released to the Japan, U.S., and Europe App stores.[8]
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Justice for All
The second game was released on the GBA in Japan in 2002, and on the DS in 2006 and 2007. The game contains four cases, in both the Advance and DS versions, and takes place about a year after the events of the first game. It introduces the characters of Pearl Fey, the younger cousin of the Fey sisters, and Franziska von Karma, daughter of Manfred von Karma.
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Trials and Tribulations
The third game was released on the GBA in Japan in 2004, with Japanese and English DS ports following in 2007. The game takes place roughly a year after the previous game and includes many characters from both previous games, and has the player take control of Mia Fey with two cases in the past, as well playing a part of the final case as Miles Edgeworth. There are five cases total within the game.
Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney
The fourth game was released in Japan in April 2007 and in North America on February 19, 2008.[9] It is the first installment to be developed specifically for the Nintendo DS. Taking place several years after the events of the original trilogy, the game focuses on a new rookie attorney, Apollo Justice, who is hired by Phoenix after he loses his attorney license. The game features four cases.
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Dual Destinies
The fifth game in the main series, Dual Destinies was announced on January 29, 2012. In September 2012, Famitsu revealed the game was in development for the Nintendo 3DS and once again would star Phoenix as the protagonist, along with Apollo Justice and a new partner, Athena Cykes. The game was released in Japan on July 25, 2013 and was released as a digital download exclusive title in North America and Europe on October 24, 2013.[10][11] The game was later ported to iOS in 2014.[12] There are 5 main cases within the game, with a 6th downloadable content case, mostly unrelated to the main cases.

Investigations series[edit]

Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth
The fifth game to be released, Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth, (known in Japan as Gyakuten Kenji (逆転検事?, Turnabout Prosecutor) and originally codenamed New Gyakuten Not Saiban (NEW逆転 NOT裁判?, "NEW Turnabout, NOT Trial"), was released in Japan on May 28, 2009 and in North America on February 16, 2010. Situated after the events of Ace Attorney 3, the games stars prosecutor Miles Edgeworth, his new assistant "Great Thief" Kay Faraday, and detective Dick Gumshoe. The investigation portions are now completed using a third-person camera view, while the witness/suspect cross-examinations have been moved outside of court to the crime scenes. The rest of the gameplay remains firmly true to the series' previous four installments.
Gyakuten Kenji 2
The sixth game, Gyakuten Kenji 2, was released in Japan on February 3, 2011. It takes place about two weeks after the events of Gyakuten Kenji. There is a new gameplay mechanic known as "Logic Chess" that is similar to the Psyche Locks of previous games, except the player is given a choice of dialogue options to proceed in a certain order instead of evidence. There are currently no plans to localize the game outside Japan,[13] but an English fan translation has been released.[14]

Spin-off games[edit]

Professor Layton vs. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
Professor Layton vs. Ace Attorney (レイトン教授 VS 逆転裁判 Layton-kyōju VS Gyakuten Saiban?, lit. "Professor Layton vs. Turnabout Trial") is a crossover game between the Ace Attorney series and the Professor Layton series; it was co-developed by Capcom and Level-5 for the Nintendo 3DS. It is described as a combination of the two game styles - puzzle solving and crime investigation. Shu Takumi, the main writer of the original Ace Attorney games, wrote the plot for this title. The game was released in Japan on November 29, 2012, in Europe, and Australia on March 28, 2014 and on August 29, 2014 in North America.[15]
Dai Gyakuten Saiban: Naruhodō Ryūnosuke no Bōken
Dai Gyakuten Saiban: Naruhodō Ryūnosuke no Bōken (大逆転裁判 ‐成歩堂龍ノ介の冒険‐?, lit. Great Turnabout Trial - The Adventure of Ryūnosuke Naruhodō) was released in Japan on July 9, 2015, with no plans for a Western release. The game takes place in the Meiji period (1868 to 1912) and focuses on Ryūnosuke Naruhodō, one of Phoenix's ancestors, as he travels to England to work with famous detective Sherlock Holmes.[16] The game's producer, Shintaro Kojima, stated that this game is the start of a new series entitled Dai Gyakuten Saiban, separate from the main Ace Attorney games, and will be "quite different" from the previous Ace Attorney titles.[17][18][19]

Future titles[edit]

A sixth entry in the main series, tentatively titled Ace Attorney 6 (Gyakuten Saiban 6), was announced for international release on September 1, 2015. The game follows Phoenix as he visits the Kingdom of Kurain, which is filled with the spirits of the dead and adds a "Water Mirror" system to its trials.[20][21][22][23] So far the only confirmed returning characters beside Phoenix are Apollo Justice, who appears in a trailer for the game shown in the Tokyo Game Show 2015, and Athena Cykes, who was announced at Jump Festa in December of 2015.[24] The game will follow two different storylines; One with Phoenix as the protagonist during his stay at Kurain and another with Apollo whose story is set in Japan.[25]


Games in the Ace Attorney series, mainly the original trilogy of games for the Game Boy Advance, have been ported to numerous systems since their original release. Most notably, the games were first ported to the Nintendo DS where they made their English debut. These games were subsequently ported to other platforms such as Microsoft Windows and the Wii via WiiWare.

The original trilogy of games were ported to Microsoft Windows by Daletto and Capcom as a series of episodic games in Japan; the first game, for example, is broken into 17 episodes and only includes the original four chapters from the first game. Japan and Capcom has no plans to localize these ports in North America or Europe.[26]

In 2010, Capcom ported the original trilogy of games to the Wii in downloadable form via WiiWare, the games were released over a period of several months. These were a series of direct ports from the Nintendo DS versions of the games with no enhanced visuals, or added features with the exception of utilizing the Wii's pointer as well as motion controls.[27][28]

Capcom has also ported the first game of the series to iOS platforms. The game mainly utilizes the original graphics of the Nintendo DS versions, but has a revamped interface with a new set of graphics for most of the interactive sections of the game. This game was first released on the Japanese App Store in 2009. It was subsequently released internationally in English in 2010. Capcom has announced that it will port the Phoenix Wright trilogy to iOS as Gyakuten Saiban 123HD ~Naruhodō Ryūichi-Hen, which appears to have improved visuals over the original series. This includes the ability to run the game in a "dual screen" mode, mimicking the Nintendo DS display with the interactive components on the bottom half, or a single screen mode where the interactive components are overlaid on the main graphics screen. The game ports were released on February 7, 2012 in Japan. The collection was announced for release on the U.S. App Store as Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney Trilogy HD in Fall 2012[29] and was released on May 30, 2013.[30]

Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney Trilogy, known in Japan as Gyakuten Saiban 123: Naruhodō Selection, is a compilation of the first three Ace Attorney games for the Nintendo 3DS. The compilation includes graphical improvements, including a stereoscopic 3D effect, and both Japanese and English language options.[31][32][33] The compilation was released in Japan on April 17, 2014 and was released exclusively on the Nintendo eShop in North America and Europe in December 2014.[34][35]

An iOS port of Dual Destinies was released in Japan on August 7, 2014,[36] and was later released in Europe and North America on August 14, 2014.[37][38]

Other media[edit]


The boxart for the official soundtrack to the first DS porting of the series. Pictured (from left to right, top to bottom): Phoenix Wright, Maya Fey, Miles Edgeworth, Mia Fey, Ema Skye, and Lana Skye.

The official soundtrack for Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney was first published by Suleputer on November 30, 2005.[39] The soundtracks of the second, third, fourth, and fifth game have also been released.[40][41]

Capcom has also released an album entitled Gyakuten Saiban Orchestra Album: Gyakuten Meets Orchestra with orchestral arrangements of many of the songs used in the game and its two sequels on September 9, 2006. A second CD with additional Ace Attorney orchestral pieces was released for sale at the Tokyo Game Show 2006, and was sold to the public later that year. On March 31, 2007, another official arrangement album named Gyakuten Saiban Jazz Album: Gyakuten Meets Jazz was released by Capcom.[42] As the name implies, the album consists of jazz arrangements. The CDs were originally scheduled for Japanese release only,[43][44] but since, it has been announced that they will be released in North America as well, the release date currently unknown[45]

The video game music arrangement circle Magical Trick Society[46] has released an album with arrangements of songs from Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney, called Cadenza: Gyakuten Saiban 1.

On April 20, 2008, a live concert for the music in the Ace Attorney was held, and on July 16, 2008 a recording of this soundtrack was put out, under the name of Gyakuten Saiban Tokubetsu Hōtei 2008.


A manga adaptation, based on the Phoenix Wright games, written by Kenji Kuroda and illustrated by Kazuo Maekawa began publication in Kodansha's Bessatsu Young Magazine from August 2006. The five volumes were released in North America by Kodansha USA.[47] Four additional manga adaptation volumes were made by the same author and illustrator based on the Ace Attorney Investigations spin-off games, which were also released in North America by Kodansha USA. Four manga anthology books, based on the Phoenix Wright games, written and illustrated by various manga authors were released in Japan. Only the first two volumes were released by Del Rey in North America.


Capcom Japan worked in conjunction with Takarazuka Revue to create a live musical performance for the Phoenix Wright games presented in February 2009.[48][49] Gyakuten Saiban −Yomigaeru Shinjitsu− (逆転裁判 −蘇る真実−?, lit. "Turnabout Trial -Truth Resurrected-"), and starred Cosmos Troupe's Tomu Ranju in the lead role. Despite being a Japanese production, the show uses names from the English versions of the games. The show was well-received, leading to a sequel to be performed in August 2009.[50][51] A third musical, Gyakuten Saiban 3 Kenji Miles Edgeworth (逆転裁判3 検事マイルズ・エッジワース?, lit. "Turnabout Trial 3 Prosecutor Miles Edgeworth"), was announced on July 31, 2012,[52] and was performed in January 2013.[53]


Main article: Ace Attorney (film)

A live-action film based on the games was produced in association with Nippon Television Network Corporation and Toho Co., Ltd., released in Japan on February 11, 2012. Takashi Miike directed the film, which stars Hiroki Narimiya as Phoenix, Takumi Saito as Edgeworth, and Mirei Kiritani as Maya.[54]

Stage play[edit]

A stage play adaptation, titled Gyakuten Saiban: Turnabout Spotlight (逆転裁判 逆転のスポットライト Gyakuten Saiban: Gyakuten no Supottoraito?), ran at the Rikkoukai Hall in Kitashinagawa, Tokyo from July 31, 2013 to August 4, 2013.[55]


An anime series based on the franchise is planned to premiere in April 2016.[56]

Appearances in other video games[edit]

Phoenix Wright, Franziska von Karma, and Miles Edgeworth appear as new cards in the game SNK vs. Capcom: Card Fighters DS. Wright and Edgeworth also make a cameo appearance in the crossover fighting game, Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds, during She-Hulk's ending.[57] Phoenix Wright appears as a playable character in Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3, assisted by Maya, Missile, and the Judge, while Edgeworth, Franziska, and Godot appear as cards in the Heroes vs. Heralds game mode.[58][59] Phoenix Wright and Maya Fey were announced to play as a Solo Unit in Project X Zone 2, with Edgeworth making a non-playable appearance.


Critical reception[edit]

Game Metacritic GameRankings
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney 81/100 (53 reviews)[60] 82% (63 reviews)[61]
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
Justice for All
76/100 (51 reviews)[62] 78% (58 reviews)[63]
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
Trials and Tribulations
81/100 (45 reviews)[64] 81% (52 reviews)[65]
Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney 78/100 (48 reviews)[66] 78% (48 reviews)[67]
Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth 78/100 (51 reviews)[68] 79% (31 reviews)[69]
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
Dual Destinies
81/100 (61 reviews)[70] 82.67% (42 reviews)[71]
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney
81/100 (34 reviews)[72] 83.29% (24 reviews)[73]

The Western releases of the games have garnered generally favorable reviews by the gaming press. The series has generally been praised for being a strong adventure game in an otherwise lacking market, having great presentation, music, and dialogue, while at the same time being criticized for being too linear and lacking replayability and evolution among the series' installments.[74][75][76] The representation of the legal system in the games has been noted to be significantly flawed, disregarding the fact that the game's legal system is not directly based on the one used in the United States; GameSpot's review of Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney noted that during courtroom sessions, one should "suspend your disbelief about the whole procedure, since, although it feels fairly close to reality, many things go on during the proceedings that would probably horrify actual members of the legal system."[77] Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney — Justice for All also received negative comments due to the lack of the unique DS features introduced in the first game.[75][76] Issue 22 of (N)Gamer noted that the series on a whole sometimes features "odd leaps in logic" that turns the game into a trial-and-error procedure.


A cosplayer portraying the character of Phoenix Wright at WonderCon 2015.

In Japan, the series has performed reasonably well, with the combined sales (both GBA and DS) of the first two games around 400,000 units, and the third game, only considering GBA sales, nearing 250,000 units.[78] The fourth game sold 160,000 copies the day of release in Japan, with a total of 250,000 units moved during the first week of release.[78]

In the United States, the first game became surprisingly successful, forcing Capcom to prepare at least three additional runs of the game to meet the demand.[79][80] Part of this was due to initially low expectations from retailers such as Walmart and Toys "R" Us who passed on the game; Capcom had produced nine to ten runs of three-to-four thousand units before Toys "R" Us requested 15,000 copies.[81]

As of December 2009, it was their 9th best selling series of all time.[82] On October 2010, Capcom stated that the series has sold more than 3.9 million units worldwide and called it one of the company's "strongest intellectual properties."[83] As of December 2013, the series has sold over 5 million units.[84]


  1. ^ "Official Gyakuten Saiban 4 Blog : Entry #1 Greetings". 
  2. ^ a b " News : On the Wright Track: The Writers of Phoenix Wright's Sequel Discuss Their New Case". Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d Monaghan, Fintan (2010-05-11). "Phoenix Wright's Objection!". The Escapist. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  4. ^ Ramseyer, John Mark; Rasmusen, Eric (January 2001). "Why Is the Japanese Conviction Rate So High?". The Journal of Legal Studies (The University of Chicago Press) 30 (1): 55–88. doi:10.1086/468111. 
  5. ^ Gyakuten Kenji 1
  6. ^ Gyakuten Kenji 2
  7. ^ "Ace Attorney screenshots and statistics". Universal Videogame List. Retrieved 2010-11-01. 
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External links[edit]