Ace in the Hole (1951 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ace in the Hole
Ace in the Hole (1951 film poster).jpg
theatrical release poster
Directed byBilly Wilder
Written byWalter Newman
Lesser Samuels
Billy Wilder
Story byVictor Desny (uncredited)
Produced byBilly Wilder
StarringKirk Douglas
CinematographyCharles Lang
Edited byArthur P. Schmidt
Music byHugo Friedhofer
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release date
  • June 14, 1951 (1951-06-14)
Running time
111 minutes
CountryUnited States
Budget$1.8 million
Box office$1.3 million (rentals)[1]

Ace in the Hole, also known as The Big Carnival, is a 1951 American film noir[2] starring Kirk Douglas as a cynical, disgraced reporter who stops at nothing to try to regain a job on a major newspaper. The film co-stars Jan Sterling and features Robert Arthur and Porter Hall.[3]

It marked a series of firsts for auteur Billy Wilder: it was the first time he was involved in a project as a writer, producer, and director; his first film following his breakup with long-time writing partner Charles Brackett, with whom he had collaborated on The Lost Weekend and Sunset Boulevard, among others; and his first film to be a critical and commercial failure.[4]

The story is a biting examination of the seedy relationship between the press, the news it reports and the manner in which it reports it. The film also shows how a gullible public can be manipulated by the press. Without consulting Wilder, Paramount Pictures executive Y. Frank Freeman changed the title to The Big Carnival just prior to its release.[5] Early television broadcasts retained that title, but when aired by Turner Classic Movies – and when released on DVD by The Criterion Collection in July 2007 – it reverted to Ace in the Hole.

In 2017, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[6]


Chuck Tatum (Kirk Douglas) is a fiercely ambitious, newly sober alcoholic reporter whose career in New York City has fallen into notoriety and decline. He has come west to New Mexico in a broken-down car, out of money and options. Tatum visits the office of the tiny Albuquerque Sun-Bulletin and asks the publisher, Boot (Porter Hall), if he would like to make $200 a week: "Mr. Boot, I'm a $250-a-week newspaperman. I can be had for $50." Boot says, "In this shop we pay $60", and brings Tatum on. However, he remains skeptical of his new hire.

For a year Tatum stays sober and works there uneventfully and unhappily. One day he and the newspaper's young photographer, Herbie Cook (Robert Arthur), are assigned to cover a small-town rattlesnake hunt. Stopping for gasoline, they learn about Leo Minosa (Richard Benedict), a local man who has become trapped in the collapse of a cliff dwelling while gathering ancient Indian artifacts. Tatum and Cook go in after the man and find they can get close enough to talk to him and pass him food and drink. Cook photographs him as Tatum tries to cheer him up.

But Tatum has sensed a golden opportunity to manipulate the rescue effort for publicity. After filing an initial report on the accident, he persuades the unscrupulous local sheriff, Kretzer (Ray Teal), to give him exclusive access to Leo in return for reportage that will guarantee Kretzer's reelection. When the construction contractor, Smollett (Frank Jaquet), says it will take 12–16 hours to shore up the existing passages and safely get Minosa out, Tatum and Kretzer convince him to drill from above instead, which will take a week, keeping Tatum on newspaper front pages nationwide.

Lorraine Minosa (Jan Sterling), the victim's wife, is eager to leave Leo and their struggling business, a combination trading post and restaurant in the middle of nowhere, but as tourists begin flocking to the rescue site, she experiences a financial windfall, and goes along with Tatum's scheme. Cook also begins losing his idealism as he envisions himself selling pictures to Look or Life. Tatum and Cook quit the Sun-Bulletin and Tatum talks a New York editor into hiring him to report exclusively from the scene for $1,000 per day—and, more importantly, his old job back afterwards.

As days pass, the rescue site literally becomes an all-day carnival with rides, entertainment, games, and songs about Leo. Tatum begins drinking again. He takes up with Lorraine and is greeted heroically by the crowd each time he returns from visiting Leo. But, five days along, Leo develops pneumonia and the doctor gives him 12 hours to live without hospital treatment.

Remorseful, Tatum sends a news flash: Leo will now be rescued within 12 hours. But when he tells Smollett to stop drilling and shore up the walls, he learns that the vibration from drilling has made this impossible. Tatum now fights verbally and physically with Lorraine, and she stabs him in self-defense with a pair of scissors. Tatum gets the local priest, and takes him to Leo to administer the Last Rites. Leo subsequently dies.

Tatum orders the crew to stop drilling, then announces to the crowd that Leo has died, telling them to pack up and leave. Other reporters get on their newswires and report Leo's death. As the carnival breaks down, the public packs up and moves out en masse, Lorraine among them.

During all this, Tatum has neglected to send copy to his New York editor. Tatum is fired and the other reporters gloat over his comedown. Drunk and slowly dying from the stab wound, Tatum calls the editor and tries to confess to killing Leo by delaying the rescue, but the editor hangs up on him.

Tatum corrals Cook into driving back to Albuquerque. Tatum makes a dramatic entrance into the Sun-Bulletin offices, calling for Boot. Tatum says: "How'd you like to make yourself $1,000 a day, Mr. Boot? I'm a $1,000-a-day newspaperman. You can have me for nothin'." He then falls to the floor dead.




The film's plot has similarities with two real-life events that ended in tragedy. The first involved W. Floyd Collins, who in 1925 was trapped inside Sand Cave, Kentucky, following a landslide. A Louisville newspaper, the Courier-Journal, jumped on the story by dispatching reporter William Burke Miller to the scene. Miller's enterprising coverage turned the tragic episode into a national event and earned the writer a Pulitzer Prize. Collins's name is cited in the film as an example of a cave-in victim who becomes a media sensation. The second event took place in April 1949. Three-year-old Kathy Fiscus of San Marino, California, fell into an abandoned well and, during a rescue operation that lasted several days, thousands of people arrived to watch the action unfold. In both cases, the victims died before they were rescued.[7]

After the film's release screenwriter Victor Desny sued Wilder for plagiarism because he had contacted Wilder's secretary Rosella Stewart to propose a film based on the story of Floyd Collins in November 1949. Wilder's attorneys responded that not only did an oral plot summary not constitute a formal story submission but the Collins case was historical in nature and as such was not protected by copyright laws. In December 1953, Judge Stanley Mosk ruled in favor of Wilder and Paramount. Desny appealed and in August 1956 the California Supreme Court ruled his oral submission had been legitimate. Wilder's attorneys settled that same month, paying Desny $14,350 (equivalent to $137,000 in 2020).[8][5]


In the original script, Tatum colluded with the local sheriff. Joseph Breen of the Hays Code office strongly objected to the on-screen depiction of a corrupt law enforcement officer and insisted Wilder add dialogue making it clear the man eventually would be made to answer for his actions.[9]


The final cost of the film was $1,821,052, of which $250,000 was paid to Wilder as writer, producer, and director.[10] Its exterior set, (35°23′49″N 109°01′09″W / 35.39694°N 109.01917°W / 35.39694; -109.01917), which was constructed 19 miles west of Gallup, was the largest non-combat set ever constructed at the time. It measured 235 feet (72 m) high, 1,200 feet (370 m) wide, and 1,600 feet (490 m) deep and included an ancient cliff dwelling, collapsed cave, roadside stands, parking lots, and a carnival site. Underground scenes were filmed in a mock-up at the Paramount Studios on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.[11] More than 1,000 extras and 400 cars were utilized in the crowd scenes. After the film was completed, Paramount charged admission to the set.[12]

Frank Cady's character identifies himself as a salesman for Pacific All-Risk Insurance, a fictitious company featured in Wilder's 1944 film Double Indemnity.


Jay Livingston and Ray Evans wrote the song "We're Coming, Leo," performed by a vocalist and band at the carnival.[13]


Alternate poster with the title The Big Carnival

Critical response[edit]

At the time of its release, critics found little to admire. In his review in The New York Times, Bosley Crowther called it "a masterly film" but added, "Mr. Wilder has let imagination so fully take command of his yarn that it presents not only a distortion of journalistic practice but something of a dramatic grotesque . . . [it] is badly weakened by a poorly constructed plot, which depends for its strength upon assumptions that are not only naïve but absurd. There isn't any denying that there are vicious newspaper men and that one might conceivably take advantage of a disaster for his own private gain. But to reckon that one could so tie up and maneuver a story of any size, while other reporters chew their fingers, is simply incredible."[14]

The Hollywood Reporter called it "ruthless and cynical...a distorted study of corruption and mob psychology nothing more than a brazen, uncalled-for slap in the face of two respected and frequently effective American institutions - democratic government and the free press."[15] Variety was more positive, noting "the performances are fine. Douglas enacts the heel reporter ably, giving it color to balance its unsympathetic character. Jan Sterling also is good in a role that has no softening touches, and Benedict's victim portrayal is first-rate. Billy Wilder's direction captures the feel of morbid expectancy that always comes out in the curious that flock to scenes of tragedy."[16]

The film has found new respect among critics. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote in 2007, "Although the film is 56 years old, I found while watching it again that it still has all its power. It hasn't aged because Wilder and his co-writers, Walter Newman and Lesser Samuels, were so lean and mean [with their dialogue] . . . [Kirk Douglas'] focus and energy . . . is almost scary. There is nothing dated about [his] performance. It's as right-now as a sharpened knife."[17]

Dave Kehr in the Chicago Reader called it "cold, lurid, and fascinating"[18] and Nathan Lee of The Village Voice wrote, "Here is, half a century out of the past, a movie so acidly au courant it stings."[19]

Time Out London wrote, "As a diatribe against all that is worst in human nature, it has moments dipped in pure vitriol."[20] TV Guide called it "a searing example of writer-director Billy Wilder at his most brilliantly misanthropic" and adds, "An uncompromising portrait of human nature at its worst, the film . . . stands as one of the great American films of the 1950s."[21]

Ed Gonzalez of Slant Magazine wrote that the film "... allowed Wilder to question the very nature of human interest stories and the twisted relationship between the American media and its public. More than 50 years after the film's release, when magazines compete to come up with the cattiest buzz terms and giddily celebrate the demise of celebrity relationships for buffo bucks, Ace in the Hole feels more relevant than ever."[22]

In his Slate review, Jack Shafer wrote in 2007, "If film noir illustrates the crackup of the American dream . . . Ace in the Hole is an exemplar of the form."[2]

The film was included in film critic Roger Ebert's list of "The Great Movies" in 2001.[23] In September 2008, Empire Magazine published its list of the Top 500 greatest movies of all time. With votes from 10,000 readers of the magazine along with 500 key film critics and 150 film industry figures, this film is ranked number 385.[24] In 2015, the film ranked 100th on BBC's "100 Greatest American Films" list, voted on by film critics from around the world.[25]

Awards and nominations[edit]



  • Academy Award for Best Story and Screenplay – Billy Wilder, Lesser Samuels and Walter Newman; 1952.
  • Venice Film Festival: Golden Lion – Billy Wilder; 1951.


The 1992 The Simpsons episode "Radio Bart" largely references the storyline of Ace in the Hole, featuring Bart Simpson lowering a portable radio into a well, and using a wireless microphone to broadcast his voice from it. He convinces the public that a boy named "Timmy O'Toole" had fallen into it, prompting news coverage and charity campaigns.[26][27] Writer Jon Vitti noted that series creator Matt Groening "came in out of nowhere and just gave me, start to finish, the whole story."[28]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Staff (January 2, 1952) "The Top Box Office Hits of 1951", Variety
  2. ^ a b Shafer, Jack (July 19, 2007). "Presence of Malice: Billy Wilder tours journalism's pus-filled heart in the long-lost Ace in the Hole". Slate. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  3. ^ Silver, Alain (2010). Film Noir: The Encyclopedia. p. 24. ISBN 978-0715638804.
  4. ^ Sikov 1998, p. 325-38.
  5. ^ a b "Notes"
  6. ^ Staff (December 13, 2017). "2017 National Film Registry Is More Than a 'Field of Dreams'". Library of Congress National Film Registry. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
  7. ^ Sikov 1998, p. 312-13.
  8. ^ Sikov 1998, p. 327-28.
  9. ^ Sikov 1998, p. 318.
  10. ^ Sikov 1998, p. 325.
  11. ^ Reeves, Tony (June 25, 2015). The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Archived from the original on June 25, 2015.
  12. ^ Sikov 1998, p. 317.
  13. ^ "We're Coming Leo – Livingston & Evans". Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  14. ^ Crowther, Bosley (June 30, 1951). "The Screen in Review; 'Ace in the Hole,' Billy Wilder Special, With Kirk Douglas, Arrives at Globe Theatre". The New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  15. ^ Sikov 1998, p. 326.
  16. ^ Staff (December 31, 1950). "Ace in the Hole - Review". Variety. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  17. ^ Ebert, Roger (August 12, 2007). "Ace in the Hole - Roger Ebert - The Great Movies". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  18. ^ Kehr, Dave. "Ace in the Hole". Chicago Reader. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  19. ^ Lee, Nathan (January 2, 2007). "Truth Is For Sissies". Village Voice. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
  20. ^ TM. "Ace in the Hole". Time Out London. Archived from the original on November 15, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  21. ^ Scheinfeld, Michael. "Ace in the Hole: Review". TV Guide. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  22. ^ Gonzalez, Ed (January 19, 2004). "Ace in the Hole: Film Review". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  23. ^ Roger Ebert. "Ace In the Hole". Roger
  24. ^ Staff "Empire Magazine's The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time" Empire Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  25. ^ "100 Greatest American Films". BBC. July 20, 2015. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  26. ^ "That Timmy O'Toole Is a Real Hero!". Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  27. ^ "The Simpsons (Classic): "Radio Bart"". TV Club. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  28. ^ Vitti, Jon (2003). The Simpsons season 3 DVD commentary for the episode "Radio Bart" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.


Further reading

  • Armstrong, Richard (February 2002). "Ace in the Hole". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
    • Freely accessible essay by Richard Armstrong, who published a biography of Wilder in 2000.
  • Maddin, Guy (July 16, 2007). "Ace in the Hole: Chin Up for Mother". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
    • Maddin is a filmmaker; publication of this essay accompanied the 2007 DVD release of Ace in the Hole by The Criterion Collection.

External links[edit]