H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
H. Milne-Edwards, 1830
Acetes is a genus of small shrimp that resemble krill, which is native to the western and central Indo-Pacific, the Atlantic coast of the Americas, Pacific coast of South America and inland waters of South America. Although most are from marine or estuarine habitats, the South American A. paraguayensis is a fresh water species. Several of its species are important for the production of shrimp paste in Southeast Asia, including A. japonicus, which is the world's most heavily fished species of wild shrimp or prawn in terms of total tonnage.
The genus is characterised by the loss of the fourth and fifth pairs of pereiopods. They are small prawns, 1–4 centimetres (0.39–1.57 in) long, translucent, but with a pair of black eyes, and a number of red spots of pigment on the uropods.
- Acetes americanus Ortmann, 1893 – aviu shrimp
- Acetes binghami Burkenroad, 1934
- Acetes chinensis Hansen, 1919 – northern mauxia shrimp
- Acetes erythraeus Nobili, 1905 – tsivakihini paste shrimp
- Acetes indicus H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 – Jawala paste shrimp
- Acetes intermedius Omori, 1975 – Taiwan mauxia shrimp
- Acetes japonicus Kishinouye, 1905 – akiami paste shrimp
- Acetes johni Nataraj, 1947
- Acetes marinus Omori, 1975
- Acetes natalensis Barnard, 1950
- Acetes paraguayensis Hansen, 1919
- Acetes serrulatus (Krøyer, 1859) – southern mauxia shrimp
- Acetes sibogae Hansen, 1919 – alamang shrimp
- Acetes vulgaris Hansen, 1919 – jembret shrimp
Many species of Acetes are fished for commercially, and the different species are often not discriminated. Acetes are the most fished genus of crustacean, with global production in 2008 of 558,124 tonnes (1.23×109 lb). Fishers mostly use push nets and bag nets, as well as seines both on boats and from the shore.
Only a small proportion of the entire catch is sold fresh, with most of it being dried, salted or fermented. The caught prawns are washed and then mixed with 4–5 pounds (1.8–2.3 kg) of salt per 100 lb (45 kg) of prawns. The prawns are then crushed using cleavers and packed into various containers, where the paste remains for around 4 hours. After this, the paste is re-packed, before being left to mature for a month, after which it is mixed and crushed again, and then packed for sale. If a producer cannot sell the paste quickly, it can be kept for up to 6 months, mincing it every month or so. The resulting paste is reported to contain 16.2% protein and 1.3% fat.
- Vereshchaka, A.L.; A.A. Lunina; J. Olesen (2016). "Phylogeny and classification of the shrimp genera Acetes, Peisos, and Sicyonella (Sergestidae: Crustacea: Decapoda)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 177 (2): 353–377. doi:10.1111/zoj.12371.
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- David C. Judkins & Brian Kensley (2008). "New genera in the family Sergestidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Penaeidea)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 121 (1): 72–84. doi:10.2988/06-26.1.
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- Makoto Omori (1975). "The biology of pelagic shrimps in the ocean". In Frederick Stratten Russell & Maurice Yonge (ed.). Advances in Marine Biology. Volume 12. Academic Press. pp. 233–324. ISBN 978-0-12-026112-3.
- Chiaki Koizumi (2001). "Ecology of prawns and shrimps". Prawns of Japan and the World. CRC Press. pp. 29–73. ISBN 978-90-5410-769-9.
- WoRMS (2010). "Acetes H. Milne-Edwards, 1830". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved April 24, 2010.
- Lipke B. Holthuis (1980). "Superfamily Sergestoidea". Vol. 1 - Shrimps and prawns of the world. An Annotated Catalogue of Species of Interest to Fisheries (PDF). FAO Species Catalogue. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 92-5-100896-5.[permanent dead link]
- "Acetes sp. (Kishinouye, 1905)". Species Fact Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Keith H. Steinkraus (1996). "Indigenous Amino Acid / Peptide Sauces and Pastes with Meatlike Flavors". Handbook of indigenous fermented foods. Volume 73 of Food science and technology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 509–654. ISBN 978-0-8247-9352-4.
- Torry Research Station (1989). "Akiami paste shrimp". Yield and nutritional value of the commercially more important fish species. Volume 309 of FAO fisheries technical paper. Food and Agriculture Organization. p. 23. ISBN 978-92-5-102870-4.