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Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Pseudomonadota
Class: Alphaproteobacteria
Order: Rhodospirillales
Family: Acetobacteraceae
Genus: Acetobacter
Beijerinck 1898
Type species
Acetobacter aceti

A. aceti[1]
A. cerevisiae[1]
A. cibinongensis[1]
A. estunensis[1]
A. fabarum[1]
A. farinalis[1]
A. indonesiensis[1]
A. lambici[1]
A. liquefaciens[1]
A. lovaniensis[1]
A. malorum[1]
A. musti[1]
A. nitrogenifigens[1]
A. oeni[1]
A. okinawensis[1]
A. orientalis[1]
A. orleanensis[1]
A. papayae[1]
A. pasteurianus[1]
A. peroxydans[1]
A. persici[1]
A. pomorum[1]
A. senegalensis[1]
A. sicerae[1]
A. suratthaniensis[1]
A. syzygii[1]
A. thailandicus[1]
A. tropicalis[1]
A. xylinus[1]

Acetobacter is a genus of acetic acid bacteria. Acetic acid bacteria are characterized by the ability to convert ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. Of these, the genus Acetobacter is distinguished by the ability to oxidize lactate and acetate into carbon dioxide and water.[2] Bacteria of the genus Acetobacter have been isolated from industrial vinegar fermentation processes and are frequently used as fermentation starter cultures.[3]

History of research[edit]

The acetic fermentation was demonstrated by Louis Pasteur, who discovered the first acetobacter - Acetobacter aceti - in 1864.

In 1998, two strains of Acetobacter isolated from red wine and cider vinegar were named Acetobacter oboediens and Acetobacter pomorum.[4]

In 2000, Acetobacter oboediens and Acetobacter intermedius were transferred to Gluconacetobacter on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing.[5]

In 2002, Acetobacter cerevisiae and Acetobacter malorum were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of Acetobacter strains.[2]

In 2006, a strain of Acetobacter isolated from spoiled red wine was named Acetobacter oeni.[6]


Regarding the genus Acetobacter’s involvement with other organisms, it is known for having species that are important commensal bacteria in the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster.[7][8] The species A. pomorum specifically helps uphold the physiology and development of Drosophila melanogaster through insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling.[9]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Parte, A.C. "Acetobacter". LPSN.
  2. ^ a b Cleenwerck I; Vandemeulebroecke D; Janssens D; Swings J (2002). "Re-examination of the genus Acetobacter, with descriptions of Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (5): 1551–1558. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-5-1551. PMID 12361257.
  3. ^ Sokollek SJ; Hertel C; Hammes WP (February 1998). "Cultivation and preservation of vinegar bacteria". Journal of Biotechnology. 60 (3): 195–206. doi:10.1016/s0168-1656(98)00014-5.
  4. ^ Spokollek SJ; Hertel C; Hammes WP (July 1998). "Description of Acetobacter oboediens sp. nov. and Acetobacter pomorum sp. nov., two new species isolated from industrial vinegar fermentations". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 48 (3): 935–940. doi:10.1099/00207713-48-3-935. PMID 9734049. S2CID 24579813.
  5. ^ Yamada Y (2000). "Transfer of Acetobacter oboediens Sokollek et al. 1998 and Acetobacter intermedius Boesch et al. 1998 to the genus Gluconacetobacter as Gluconacetobacter oboediens comb. nov. and Gluconacetobacter intermedius comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 (6): 2225–2227. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-6-2225. PMID 11155999.
  6. ^ Silva LR; Cleenwerck I; Rivas R; Swings J; Trujilo ME; Willems A; Velazuez E (2006). "Acetobacter oeni sp. nov. isolated from spoiled red wine". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 56 (Pt 1): 21–24. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.46000-0. PMID 16403860.
  7. ^ Leitão-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho-Santos, Zita; Francisco, Ana Patrícia; Fioreze, Gabriela Tondolo; Anjos, Margarida; Baltazar, Célia; Elias, Ana Paula; Itskov, Pavel M.; Piper, Matthew D. W.; Ribeiro, Carlos (2017-04-25). Vosshall, Leslie (ed.). "Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction". PLOS Biology. 15 (4): e2000862. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2000862. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 5404834. PMID 28441450.
  8. ^ Wong, Chun Nin Adam; Ng, Patrick; Douglas, Angela E. (July 2011). "Low-diversity bacterial community in the gut of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster: Bacterial community in Drosophila melanogaster". Environmental Microbiology. 13 (7): 1889–1900. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02511.x. PMC 3495270. PMID 21631690.
  9. ^ Shin, S. C.; Kim, S.-H.; You, H.; Kim, B.; Kim, A. C.; Lee, K.-A.; Yoon, J.-H.; Ryu, J.-H.; Lee, W.-J. (2011-11-04). "Drosophila Microbiome Modulates Host Developmental and Metabolic Homeostasis via Insulin Signaling". Science. 334 (6056): 670–674. Bibcode:2011Sci...334..670S. doi:10.1126/science.1212782. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 22053049. S2CID 206536986.

Further reading[edit]

  • Madigan M; Martinko J, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-144329-7.