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Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.009.078
Molar mass 100.12 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Acetylpropionyl, also known as acetyl propionyl or 2,3-pentanedione,[1] is an organic compound, more specifically a diketone.[2]

Uses for acetylpropionyl include:


As a flavoring agent, it is a controversial[4] ingredient in some e-liquid products for use with electronic cigarettes. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , inhalation of acetylpropionyl causes respiratory tract epithelial damage and fibrosis to lungs in animal studies. It also causes genetic changes in the animals' brains.[5] Acetylpropionyl was found to cause both intraluminal and intramural fibrotic airway lesions in rats.[6] One study of the composition of 159 different e-liquid products, performed by Farsalinos et al., concluded that the use of acetylpropionyl and diacetyl in E-liquids represents an avoidable risk, and additionally that proper measures should be taken by E-liquid manufacturers and flavoring suppliers to eliminate these hazards from the products.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Hardo Siegel, Manfred Eggersdorfer "Ketones" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_077
  3. ^,3-PENTANEDIONE.htm
  4. ^
  5. ^ "CDC - Flavorings-Related Lung Disease: Exposures to Flavoring Chemicals - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  6. ^ Morgan, D. L.; Jokinen, M. P.; Price, H. C.; Gwinn, W. M.; Palmer, S. M.; Flake, G. P. (2012). "Bronchial and bronchiolar fibrosis in rats exposed to 2,3-pentanedione vapors: Implications for bronchiolitis obliterans in humans". Toxicologic Pathology. 40 (3): 448–65. doi:10.1177/0192623311431946. PMID 22215510. 
  7. ^ Farsalinos, Konstantinos (2014-08-20). "Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosol for the Presence of Selected Inhalation Toxins". Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Oxford Journals. Retrieved 2015-04-06.