Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost, BWV 114
|Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost |
|Chorale cantata by J. S. Bach|
Johannes Gigas, the author of the hymn
|Occasion||17th Sunday after Trinity|
|Performed||1 October 1724 Leipzig:|
"Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost"|
by Johannes Gigas
|Vocal||SATB choir and solo|
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost (Ah, dear Christians, be comforted), BWV 114,[a] in Leipzig for the 17th Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 1 October 1724.
Bach created the work as part of his second annual cantata cycle when he was Thomaskantor (director of music) in Leipzig. That cycle was planned as a cycle of the chorale cantatas for all occasions of the liturgical year. Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost is based on a hymn of penitence by Johannes Gigas (1561). An unknown poet kept three stanzas in their original form, which Bach set as an opening chorale fantasia, a central fourth movement with the soprano accompanied only by the continuo, and a four-part closing chorale as movement 7. The poet reworded the other stanzas as arias and recitatives, including references to the prescribed gospel about the healing of a man with dropsy. Bach scored the cantata for four vocal parts, and a Baroque instrumental ensemble of a horn to reinforce the chorale tune, a transverse flute, 2 oboes, strings and continuo.
History and words
Bach composed the cantata in his second year as Thomaskantor (director of music) in Leipzig for the 17th Sunday after Trinity. That year, Bach composed a cycle of chorale cantatas, begun on the first Sunday after Trinity of 1724. The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the Epistle to the Ephesians, the admonition to keep the unity of the Spirit (Ephesians 4:1–6), and from the Gospel of Luke, healing a man with dropsy on the Sabbath (Luke 14:1–11).
The cantata is based on a song of penitence, "Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost", in six stanzas by Johannes Gigas (1561), sung to the melody of "Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält". The hymn is only distantly related to the readings, concentrating on the thought that the Christians sin and deserve punishment, but may be raised to joy in a "seliger Tod" (blessed death). An unknown poet kept the first, third and sixth stanza as movements 1, 4 and 7 of the cantata. He derived movements 2 and 3, aria and recitative, from stanza 2, movement 5, another aria, from stanza 4, and the last recitative from stanza 5. In movement 3, he deviated from the song text, expanding in connection to the gospel that sin in general is comparable to the dropsy, "diese Sündenwassersucht ist zum Verderben da und wird dir tödlich sein" (this sinful dropsy leads to destruction and will be fatal to you), and alluding to Adam's fall, caused by self-exaltation in the forbidden quest to be like God, "Der Hochmut aß vordem von der verbotnen Frucht, Gott gleich zu werden" (Pride first ate the forbidden fruit, to be like God).
Bach first performed the cantata on 1 October 1724, only two days after the first performance of his chorale cantata Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir, BWV 130, on the feast of Michael, the archangel, 29 September 1724.
Structure and scoring
Bach structured the cantata in seven movements. The chorale tune is used in movements 1, 4 and 7, as a chorale fantasia, a chorale sung by a solo voice, and a four-part closing chorale. These three movements frame two sets of aria and recitative. Bach scored the work for four vocal soloists (soprano (S), alto (A), tenor (T) and bass (B)), a four-part choir, and a Baroque instrumental ensemble of horn (Co) to double the soprano, flauto traverso (Ft), two oboes (Ob), two violins (Vl), viola (Va), and basso continuo. The title of the autograph score reads: "Dom: 17 post Trin: / Ach lieben Xsten seyd getrost / a 4 Voc: / Corno / 2 Hautbois / 2 Violini / Viola / con / Continuo / di / Sign:JS:Bach".
In the following table of the movements, the keys and time signatures are taken from the Bach scholar Alfred Dürr, using the symbol for common time (4/4). The instruments are shown separately for brass, woodwinds and strings, while the continuo, playing throughout, is not shown.
|1||Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost||Gigas||Chorus||SATB||Co||2Ob||2Vl Va||G minor|
|2||Wo wird diesem Jammertale||anon.||Aria||T||Ft||D minor||3/4|
|3||O Sünder, trage mit Geduld||anon.||Recitative||B|
|4||Kein Frucht das Weizenkörnlein bringt||Gigas||Chorale||S||G minor|
|5||Du machst, o Tod, mir nun nicht ferner bange||anon.||Aria||A||Ob||2Vl Va||B-flat major|
|6||Indes bedenke deine Seele||anon.||Recitative||T|
|7||Wir wachen oder schlafen ein||Gigas||Chorale||SATB||Co||2Ob||2Vl Va||G minor|
In the opening chorale fantasia, "Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost" (Ah, dear Christians, be comforted), Bach expresses two thoughts of the text, comfort and fear, by contrasting themes that appear simultaneously in the instruments: an assertive theme is derived from the melody and played by the two oboes and first violins, an "anxious" one in the second violins and the continuo. The soprano sings the melody as a cantus firmus, doubled by the horn, while the lower voices are set partly in expressive imitation, partly in homophony. They are treated differently to reflect the meaning of the text. The Bach scholar Klaus Hofmann compares the movement to the opening of the cantata Jesu, der du meine Seele, BWV 78, written three weeks earlier: both "a sort of chaconne" in G minor, with a "French style" bass as "the expression of mourning and lamentation".
The first aria is set for tenor with a virtuoso flute, "Wo wird in diesem Jammertale|italic=no" (Where, in this valley of suffering). It contrasts again the anxious question "Wo wird ... vor meinen Geist die Zuflucht sein?" (Where ... is the refuge of my spirit?) and the trusting "Allein zu Jesu Vaterhänden will ich mich in der Schwachheit wenden" (However, to Jesus' fatherly hands I will turn in my weakness), The anxious question returns in the da capo form.
The first recitative, "O Sünder, trage mit Geduld" (O sinner, bear with patience), begins secco, but expresses the contrasting words "erhebst" (exalt) and "erniedrigt" (humbled) from the Gospel as an arioso.
The chorale stanza, "Kein Frucht das Weizenkörnlein bringt" (The grain of wheat bears no fruit), is set for the soprano, accompanied only by the continuo. In its "starkness of the unembellished chorale", it is the centerpiece of the cantata.
The alto aria, "Du machst, o Tod, mir nun nicht ferner bange" (You make me, o death, no longer fearful now), is the only movement of the cantata in a major key. A shift to minor on the words "Es muß ja so einmal gestorben sein" (One day, indeed, one must die) is even more striking.
A final recitative "Indes bedenke deine Seele" (Therefore, consider your soul) invites to turn body and soul to God.
|Title||Conductor / Choir / Orchestra||Soloists||Label||Year||Orch. type|
|Die Bach Kantate Vol. 52||Helmuth RillingBach-Collegium Stuttgart||Hänssler||1974/ 1981||Chamber|
|J. S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk • Complete Cantatas • Les Cantates, Folge / Vol. 29 – BWV 43–46||Gustav LeonhardtKnabenchor HannoverLeonhardt-Consort||Telefunken||1980||Period|
|Bach Edition Vol. 5 – Cantatas Vol. 2||Pieter Jan LeusinkHolland Boys ChoirNetherlands Bach Collegium||Brilliant Classics||1999||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 12||Ton KoopmanAmsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir||Antoine Marchand||2000||Period|
|Bach Cantatas Vol. 9: Lund / Leipzig / For the 17th Sunday after Trinity / For the 18th Sunday after Trinity||John Eliot GardinerMonteverdi ChoirEnglish Baroque Soloists||Soli Deo Gloria||2000||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 25 – Cantatas from Leipzig 1724 – BWV 78, 99, 114||Masaaki SuzukiBach Collegium Japan||BIS||2003||Period|
- "BWV" is Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, a thematic catalogue of Bach's works.
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- Hofmann, Klaus (2003). "Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost, BWV 114 / Ah, dear Christians, be comforted" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. p. 8. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- Wolff, Christoph (2000). Chorale Cantatas from the cycle of the Leipzig / church cantatas, 1724–25 (III) (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. p. 9. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Dürr, Alfred; Jones, Richard D. P. (2006). The Cantatas of J.S. Bach: With Their Librettos in German-English Parallel Text. Oxford University Press. pp. 560–564.
- "Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost / Text and Translation of Chorale". Bach Cantatas Website. 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält". Bach Cantatas Website. 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Gardiner, John Eliot (2009). "Cantatas for the Seventeenth Sunday after Trinity / Allhelgonakyrkan, Lund" (PDF). Monteverdi Choir. pp. 9–10. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Gardiner, John Eliot (2006). "Cantatas for the Feast of St Michael and All Angels / Unser lieben Frauen, Bremen" (PDF). Monteverdi Choir. pp. 17–18. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Bischof, Walter F. "BWV 114 Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost". University of Alberta. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Grob, Jochen (2014). "BWV 114 / BC A 139" (in German). s-line.de. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Mincham, Julian (2012). "Chapter 18 BWV 114 Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost / Beloved Christians, take comfort". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Oron, Aryeh (2015). "Cantata BWV 114 Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost". Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost, BWV 114: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost BWV 114; BC A 139 / Chorale cantata (17th Sunday after Trinity ) Bach Digital
- BWV 114 Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost: English translation, University of Vermont
- BWV 114.7 bach-chorales.com