Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid, BWV 58
Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid (Oh God, how much heartache), BWV 58,[a] is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig for the Sunday after New Year's Day and presumably first performed it on 5 January 1727. He performed it again on 4 January 1733 or 3 January 1734.
History and text
The dialogue cantata was composed for the Sunday after New Year's Day, probably of 1727, but the extant version is a recomposition from the early 1730s, which changed the instrumentation and created a new third movement. The surviving continuo part of the original aria suggests a significantly different character.
The prescribed readings for the day are from the First Epistle of Peter, the suffering of Christians (1 Peter 4:12–19), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the Flight into Egypt (Matthew 2:12–23). The text of the cantata comprises the words of the hymn published by Martin Moller in 1587, in movement 1, as well as, for the chorale, poetry published by Martin Behm in the second volume (1610) of the Centuria precationum rhythmicarum. Authorship of verses 2–4 is unknown.
Scoring and structure
The cantata has five movements:
- Duetto: Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid
- Recitative (bass): Verfolgt dich gleich die arge Welt
- Aria (soprano): Ich bin vergnügt in meinem Leiden
- Recitative (soprano): Kann es die Welt nicht lassen
- Chorale and Aria: Ich hab für mir ein schwere Reis
The structure of the piece is unusually symmetric. It opens and closes with a duet of the chorale text. Harmonically, the piece begins and ends in C major, and the central movement is in D minor. The second movement modulates from A minor to F major, while the fourth movement mirrors this motion.
The opening duet includes a ritornello of strings doubled by oboes, with a dotted-rhythm figure characteristic of a French overture. The taille and soprano perform the chorale melody, representing the Soul, while the bass acts as a vox Christi, singing an arioso. The melody is tonal but with a "very chromatic subtext". The ritornello recurs midway through the movement.
The secco bass recitative is chromatic and in two sections: the first describes a history of persecution with "striding angular phrases", while the second section emphasizes the presence of God using a gentler and smoother melodic line.
The third movement is the newer soprano aria with an obbligato solo violin. The da capo movement describes the Spirit's confidence in God. The first section includes a "motto theme" transitioning into a "hectic" violin melody. The middle section is characterized by a "muscular" soprano line and "oddly bizarre" solo violin. The first section returns modified and unheralded.
The soprano recitative, like the bass, begins by recounting persecution, but quickly becomes an arioso with a walking continuo.
The final movement is a combined chorale and aria for all parts. The soprano reprises the opening chorale melody in duple rather than the original triple time, with a responding line in the bass voice. After two phrases, the ritornello plays alone for eight measures before both voices re-enter in counterpoint to complete the chorale.
The cantata is less than 15 minutes long in total.
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- Bach Aria Group, Frank Brieff. Bach Aria Group. Decca, 1960.
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- Gächinger Kantorei/Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, Helmuth Rilling. Die Bach Kantate Vol. 20. Hänssler, 1971.
- Holland Boys Choir/Netherlands Bach Collegium. Bach Edition Vol. 18 – Cantatas Vol. 9. Brilliant Classics, 2000.
- Monteverdi Choir/English Baroque Soloists, John Eliot Gardiner. Bach Cantatas Vol. 17: Berlin. Soli Deo Gloria, 2000.
- Münchener Bach-Chor/Münchener Bach-Orchester, Karl Richter. Bach Cantatas Vol. 1 – Advent and Christmas. Archiv Produktion, 1970.
- Tölzer Knabenchor/Concentus Musicus Wien, Nikolaus Harnoncourt. J.S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk – Sacred Cantatas Vol. 3. Teldec, 1976.
- "BWV" is Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, a thematic catalogue of Bach's works.
- "Cantata No. 58". Allmusic. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Julian Mincham. "Chapter 35 BWV 58". jsbachcantatas. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Cantata BWV 58". Bach Cantatas. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- C. S. Terry and D. Litti (1917). "Bach's Cantata Libretti". Journal of the Royal Musical Association 44 (1): 71–125. doi:10.1093/jrma/44.1.71.
- "BWV 58". University of Alberta. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Craig Smith. "Cantata BWV 58". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Simon Crouch. "BWV 58". Classical Net. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
The first source is the score.
Several databases provide additional information on each cantata:
- Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid: history, scoring, Bach website (German)
- BWV 58 Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid: English translation, University of Vermont