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The Roman theatre of Acinipo
Acinipo is located in Spain
Shown within Spain
Location Province of Málaga, Spain
Region Hispania Baetica
Coordinates 36°49′55″N 5°14′20″W / 36.832°N 5.239°W / 36.832; -5.239Coordinates: 36°49′55″N 5°14′20″W / 36.832°N 5.239°W / 36.832; -5.239
Type Settlement
Founded 45 BC
Cultures Roman
Site notes
Condition In ruins

Acinipo was a city about 20 kilometers from Ronda, near Seville, Southern Spain, believed to have been founded by retired soldiers from the Roman legions more than 2,000 years ago. The remaining ruins include a Roman theater still in use today. It is known locally as Ronda la Vieja, Arunda or Old Ronda; though it has a separate origin and history from Ronda.[1]


Roman baths of Acinipo.

Some historians assert that Acinipo was created after the battle of Munda (45 BC), fought between the armies of Julius Caesar and the army of Pompey's two sons, Gnaeus and Sextus. To Caesar, Munda was supposed to be a mop-up action after Pompey's main forces were defeated in Greece. But Munda was no mop-up exercise. Tens of thousands of Romans were killed on both sides; there was no decisive victory for Caesar's armies; and one of Pompey's sons, Sextus, fled to fight another day as a famous rebel pirate against Caesar's successor, Augustus.

Some Spanish historians state that Munda is the Roman name for Ronda, where the battle of Munda may have been fought. According to Pliny, the battle of Munda was fought in Osuna, about 50 km north of Ronda in the province of Seville. But there is general agreement that Acinipo was created for retired veterans of Caesar's legions, while Arunda (Ronda) would be a separate Roman outpost, perhaps created before the Munda conflict for the veterans of Pompey's legions.

Ptolemy calls it a town of the Celtici in Hispania Baetica set on a lofty mountain.[2]


  1. ^ Naturalis Historia, Pliny the Elder on Spain, Books 3 & 4
  2. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 2.4.15.

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