Ackley function

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Ackley function of two variables
Contour surfaces of Ackley's function in 3D

In mathematical optimization, the Ackley function is a non-convex function used as a performance test problem for optimization algorithms. It was proposed by David Ackley in his 1987 PhD dissertation.[1]

On a 2-dimensional domain it is defined by:


Its global optimum point is

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ackley, D. H. (1987) "A connectionist machine for genetic hillclimbing", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston MA.
  2. ^ Bäck, Thomas (1996-02-15). "Artificial Landscapes". Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press. p. 142. doi:10.1093/oso/9780195099713.003.0008. ISBN 978-0-19-509971-3.