Ackley function

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Ackley function of two variables
Animation of Ackley's function of three variables with time the 3rd variable.

In mathematical optimization, the Ackley function is a non-convex function used as a performance test problem for optimization algorithms. It was proposed by David Ackley in his 1987 PhD Dissertation.[1]

On a 2-dimensional domain it is defined by:

Its global optimum point is:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ackley, D. H. (1987) "A connectionist machine for genetic hillclimbing", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston MA.