Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania
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The Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania or Act of March 11 (Lithuanian: Aktas dėl Lietuvos nepriklausomos valstybės atstatymo) was an independence declaration by the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic adopted on March 11, 1990, signed by all members of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania led by Sąjūdis. The act emphasized restoration and legal continuity of the interwar-period Lithuania, which was occupied by the USSR and lost independence in June 1940. It was the first time that a Union Republic declared independence from the dissolving Soviet Union.
Loss of independence
After the partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century, Lithuania was part of the Russian Empire. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Council of Lithuania, chaired by Jonas Basanavičius, proclaimed the Act of Independence of Lithuania on February 16, 1918. Lithuania enjoyed independence for two decades. In August 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact dividing Eastern Europe into spheres of influence. The Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) were assigned to the Soviet sphere of influence and subsequently were occupied in June 1940 and converted into soviet socialist republics.
In Lithuania's case, President Antanas Smetona left the country rather than accept the occupation. He did not resign, but turned over his presidential duties to Prime Minister Antanas Merkys as per the constitution. The next day, Merkys declared himself president in his own right and appointed Justas Paleckis, a longtime opponent of the Smetona regime, as prime minister. Merkys then resigned, making Paleckis acting president as well. The Soviets then used Paleckis as a puppet to help give the final Soviet takeover the appearance of legality.
The Soviet authorities undertook Sovietization policies: nationalization of all private property, collectivization of agriculture, suppression of the Catholic Church, and imposition of totalitarian control. At the same time free education and free national health system were also introduced. The armed anti-Soviet partisans were liquidated by 1953. Approximately 130,000 Lithuanians, dubbed "enemies of the people", were deported into Siberia (see June deportation and March deportation). After the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, the Soviet Union adopted de-Stalinization policies and ended mass persecutions. Nonviolent resistance continued both in Lithuania and among the Lithuanian diaspora. These movements were secret, illegal, and more focused on social issues, human rights, and cultural affairs rather than political demands.
As Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to revive the economy of the Soviet Union, he introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). These reforms encouraged changes within the Soviet government and invited the public into discussions. For the activists, it was an opportunity to bring their movements from underground into the public life. On August 23, 1987 (48th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact), the Lithuanian Liberty League organized the first public protest rally that did not result in arrests. In mid-1988, a group of 35 intellectuals organized the Sąjūdis Reform Movement with the officially stated goal of supporting, discussing, and implementing Gorbachev's reforms. Sąjūdis grew in popularity, attracting large crowds to rallies in Vingis Park and radicalizing its agenda. The movement, afraid of angering Moscow and causing a violent clampdown, continuously pushed further with its demands: from limited discussions on Gorbachev's reforms, to demand of greater say in economic decisions, to political autonomy within the Soviet Union. By the time of the Baltic Way, a human chain spanning over 600 kilometres (370 mi) across the three Baltic states to mark the 50th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, full independence was the official goal.
Parliamentary elections of February 1990 were the first free and democratic elections in Lithuania since World War II. The people overwhelmingly voted for the candidates endorsed by Sąjūdis, even though the movement did not run as a political party. The result was the first post-war non-communist government. During its first assembly on March 11, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR elected Vytautas Landsbergis as its chairman, changed its name to the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania, and formally declared the re-establishment of the State of Lithuania. The act was approved at 10:44 pm by 124 members of the council while six abstained. There were no votes against.
ACTOn the Re-establishment of the State of Lithuania
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania, expressing the will of the nation, decrees and solemnly proclaims that the execution of the sovereign powers of the State of Lithuania abolished by foreign forces in 1940, is re-established, and henceforth Lithuania is again an independent state.
The Act of Independence of February 16, 1918 of the Council of Lithuania and the Constituent Assembly decree of May 15, 1920 on the re-established democratic State of Lithuania never lost their legal effect and comprise the constitutional foundation of the State of Lithuania.
The territory of Lithuania is whole and indivisible, and the constitution of no other State is valid on it.
The State of Lithuania stresses its adherence to universally recognized principles of international law, recognizes the principle of inviolability of borders as formulated in the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in Helsinki in 1975, and guarantees human, civil, and ethnic community rights.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania, expressing sovereign power, by this Act begins to realize the complete sovereignty of the state.
The Act's contention that Lithuania never lost its independence was based on the contention that since Smetona never resigned, Merkys' takeover of the presidency was illegal. Lithuania now contends that all subsequent acts leading up to the Soviet annexation were therefore void.
The Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania served as a model and inspiration to other Soviet republics. However, the issue of independence was not immediately settled and recognition by other countries was not certain. Mikhail Gorbachev called the Act of Independence illegal and the USSR demanded revocation of the Act and began applying sanctions against Lithuania including an economic blockade. In addition, on January 13, 1991 Soviet forces stormed the Parliament building in Vilnius along with the Vilnius TV Tower. Unarmed civilian Lithuanians confronted Soviet soldiers. Fourteen people were killed and seven hundred injured in what became known as January Events.
On May 31, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Moldavian SSR voted to recognize the Restoration of the Independence of Lithuania. The Parliament of Moldova was the first in the world to recognize Lithuania's Independence, but Moldavian SSR was still part of the Soviet Union.
Iceland was the first to recognize Lithuanian independence on February 11, 1991 followed by Denmark, Slovenia, Croatia and Latvia. After the failed August Coup, Lithuanian independence recognition was reconfirmed by the United States on September 2. President George H.W. Bush announced that if Russia were to use armed force against Lithuania, the U.S. would react accordingly. Finally, on September 6, 1991 Lithuania’s independence was recognized by the Soviet Union. Then recognition of Lithuania’s independence was quickly followed by several countries including China, India and Belarus. On September 17, 1991, it was welcomed as a member of the United Nations along with Estonia and Latvia.
|February 11, 1991||Iceland|
|February 28, 1991||Denmark|
|May 16, 1991||Slovenia|
|July 27, 1991||Russian SFSR|
|August 3, 1991||Croatia|
|August 23, 1991||Latvia|
|August 24, 1991||Norway|
|August 24, 1991||Hungary|
|August 25, 1991||Argentina|
|August 25, 1991||France|
|August 26, 1991||Bulgaria|
|August 26, 1991||Italy|
|August 26, 1991||Canada|
|August 26, 1991||Poland|
|August 26, 1991||Malta|
|August 26, 1991||Portugal|
|August 26, 1991||Romania|
|August 26, 1991||San Marino|
|August 26, 1991||Ukraine|
|August 27, 1991||Albania|
|August 27, 1991||Australia|
|August 27, 1991||Belgium|
|August 27, 1991||United Kingdom|
|August 27, 1991||Georgia|
|August 27, 1991||Spain|
|August 27, 1991||Luxembourg|
|August 27, 1991||Sweden|
|August 27, 1991||Germany|
|August 27, 1991||Ireland|
|August 27, 1991||Estonia|
|August 28, 1991||Austria|
|August 28, 1991||Chile|
|August 28, 1991||New Zealand|
|August 28, 1991||South Africa|
|August 28, 1991||Finland|
|August 28, 1991||Switzerland|
|August 28, 1991||Uruguay|
|August 29, 1991||Czechoslovakia|
|August 29, 1991||Mongolia|
|August 30, 1991||Vatican City|
|August 31, 1991||Kirghizia|
|September 2, 1991||Ecuador|
|September 2, 1991||Netherlands|
|September 2, 1991||United States of America|
|September 3, 1991||Greece|
|September 3, 1991||Libya|
|September 3, 1991||Nicaragua|
|September 3, 1991||Turkey|
|September 4, 1991||Brazil|
|September 4, 1991||Israel|
|September 4, 1991||Tunisia|
|September 5, 1991||South Korea|
|September 5, 1991||Mexico|
|September 6, 1991||Guinea|
|September 6, 1991||Japan|
|September 6, 1991||Colombia|
|September 6, 1991||Singapore|
|September 6, 1991||Egypt|
|September 6, 1991||Soviet Union|
|September 7, 1991||Afghanistan|
|September 7, 1991||China|
|September 7, 1991||North Korea|
|September 7, 1991||Peru|
|September 7, 1991||Senegal|
|September 7, 1991||Bangladesh|
|September 8, 1991||Pakistan|
|September 9, 1991||Bolivia|
|September 9, 1991||India|
|September 9, 1991||Cuba|
|September 9, 1991||Syria|
|September 9, 1991||Thailand|
|September 9, 1991||Vietnam|
|September 9, 1991||Cape Verde|
|September 10, 1991||Azerbaijan|
|September 10, 1991||Iran|
|September 10, 1991||Nepal|
|September 11, 1991||Madagascar|
|September 12, 1991||Armenia|
|September 12, 1991||Cyprus|
|September 13, 1991||Yemen|
|September 15, 1991||Bahrain|
|September 15, 1991||Jordan|
|September 15, 1991||Kuwait|
|September 15, 1991||Philippines|
|September 16, 1991||Saudi Arabia|
|September 17, 1991||Indonesia|
|September 19, 1991||United Arab Emirates|
|September 20, 1991||Laos|
|September 24, 1991||Turkmenistan|
|September 25, 1991||Panama|
|September 30, 1991||Uzbekistan|
|September 30, 1991||Namibia|
|November 2, 1991||Sri Lanka|
|December 23, 1991||Ghana|
|December 23, 1991||Kazakhstan|
|December 24, 1991||Mozambique|
|December 25, 1991||Tajikistan|
|December 27, 1991||Algeria|
|December 27, 1991||Belarus|
|December 30, 1991||Lebanon|
|January 2, 1992||Iraq|
|January 6, 1992||Burundi|
|January 16, 1992||Burkina Faso|
|January 25, 1992||Mali|
|January 31, 1992||Benin|
|February 21, 1992||Costa Rica|
|March 17, 1992||Zimbabwe|
|September 25, 1992||Salvador|
|November 6, 1992||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|November 10, 1992||Nigeria|
|January 12, 1993||Chad|
- Act of Independence of Lithuania, the Act of February 16, 1918
- On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia - A similar Act in the Latvian SSR
- "LR AT AKTO Dėl Lietuvos nepriklausomos valstybės atstatymo signatarai". Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas.
- "LR AT AKTO Dėl Lietuvos nepriklausomos valstybės atstatymo signatarai". Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas.
- "Supreme Council - Reconstituent Seimas 1990 - 1992". Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas.
- "Prime Minister thanks Moldova for recognizing Lithuania's Independence in 1990". January 29, 2010. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "Core document forming part of the reports of states parties : Lithuania.". United Nations. 1 October 1998. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
- "Atkurtos Lietuvos nepriklausomos valstybės pripažinimo chronologija". Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (p. 69, 70), Joel Krieger (editor), Oxford University, 1993.
- Background Notes on Countries of the World 2003; September 2003, Lithuania, (p. 12)
- The Baltic Revolution; Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and The Path to Independence, Anatol Lieven, 1993.
- Collapse of an Empire, Lessons for Modern Russia (pp. 175, 214, 217–219), Yegor Gaidar, Brookings Institution, 2007.
- Why did the Soviet Union collapse, Understanding Historical Change, (p. 152–155), Robert Strayer, M.E.Sharpe, 1998.
- Ilgūnas, Gediminas. "Lietuvos kelias į 1990 m. kovo 11-ąją (1940-1990 m.)". Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas.