Actinomycetales

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Actinomycetales
Actinomyces israelii.jpg
Scanning electron micrograph of Actinomyces israelii.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Class: Actinobacteria
Subclass: Actinobacteridae
Order: Actinomycetales
Buchanan, 1917
Suborders/Families

The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria. A member of the order is often called an actinomycete. The actinomycetes are very diverse and contain a variety of subdivisions, as well as yet-unclassified isolates, mainly because some genera are very difficult to classify because of a highly niche-dependent phenotype. For example, Nocardia contains several phenotypes first believed to be distinct species before their differences were shown to be entirely dependent on their growth conditions.

Difficulty of classification[edit]

Actinomycetales are Gram-positive, but several species have complex cell wall structures that make the Gram staining unsuitable (e.g. Mycobacteriaceae).

Antimicrobial properties[edit]

Many species of Actinomycetes produce antimicrobial compounds under certain conditions and growth media. Streptomycin, actinomycin, and streptothricin are all medically important antibiotics isolated from Actinomycetes bacteria[1]. Almost two-thirds of the natural antimicrobial drug compounds used currently are produced by different species of Actinomycetes[2].

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Waksman, Selman A.; Schatz, Albert; Reynolds, Donald M. (December 2010). "Production of antibiotic substances by Actinomycetes". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1213 (1): 112–124. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05861.x. 
  2. ^ Bentley, S. D.; Chater, K. F.; Cerdeño-Tárraga, A.-M.; Challis, G. L.; Thomson, N. R.; James, K. D.; Harris, D. E.; Quail, M. A.; Kieser, H.; Harper, D.; Bateman, A.; Brown, S.; Chandra, G.; Chen, C. W.; Collins, M.; Cronin, A.; Fraser, A.; Goble, A.; Hidalgo, J.; Hornsby, T.; Howarth, S.; Huang, C.-H.; Kieser, T.; Larke, L.; Murphy, L.; Oliver, K.; O'Neil, S.; Rabbinowitsch, E.; Rajandream, M.-A.; Rutherford, K.; Rutter, S.; Seeger, K.; Saunders, D.; Sharp, S.; Squares, R.; Squares, S.; Taylor, K.; Warren, T.; Wietzorrek, A.; Woodward, J.; Barrell, B. G.; Parkhill, J.; Hopwood, D. A. (9 May 2002). "Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)". Nature. 417 (6885): 141–147. doi:10.1038/417141a.