Action Comics

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Not to be confused with Action (comics). ‹See Tfd›
Action Comics
Action Comics #1 (June 1938), the debut of Superman. Cover art by Joe Shuster.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly:
#1-600, #643-904
Weekly:
#601-642
Format Ongoing series
Genre
Publication date (vol. 1)
June 1938 – October 2011
(vol. 2)
November 2011–present
Number of issues (vol. 1): 906 (#1-904 plus issues numbered 0 and 1,000,000) and 13 Annuals [1]
(vol. 2): 31 (#1–26 plus issues numbered 0 and 23.1 through 23.4) and 2 Annuals (as of February 2014 cover date)[2]
Main character(s) Superman
Creative team
Penciller(s)
Collected editions
Superman Chronicles Vol 1 ISBN 1-4012-0764-2
Superman Chronicles Vol 2 ISBN 1-4012-1215-8
Superman in the Forties ISBN 1-4012-0457-0
Archives Vol 1 ISBN 1-5638-9335-5
Archives Vol 2 ISBN 1-5638-9426-2
Archives Vol 3 ISBN 1-5638-9710-5
Archives Vol 4 ISBN 1-4012-0408-2
Archives Vol 5 ISBN 1-4012-1188-7

Action Comics is an American comic book series that introduced Superman, one of the first major superhero characters as the term is popularly defined. The publisher was originally known as Detective Comics, Inc., and later as National Comics and as National Periodical Publications, before taking on its current name of DC Comics. It is one of the longest-running comic book publications.

Publication history[edit]

The Golden Age[edit]

Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster saw their creation, Superman (also known as Kal-El, originally Kal-L), launched in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 (cover dated June),[3] an event which began the Golden Age of Comic Books.[4][5] Siegel and Shuster had tried for years to find a publisher for their Superman character originally conceived as a newspaper strip without success. Superman was originally a bald madman created by Siegel and Shuster who used his telepathic abilities to wreak havoc on mankind. He appeared in Siegel and Shuster's book Science Fiction.[6] Siegel then commented, "What if this Superman was a force for good instead of evil?" The writer and artist had worked on several features for National Allied Publications' other titles such as Slam Bradley in Detective Comics[7] and were asked to contribute a feature for National's newest publication. They submitted Superman for consideration and, after re-pasting the sample newspaper strips they had prepared into comic book page format, National decided to make Superman the cover feature of their new magazine.[8] After seeing the published first issue, publisher Harry Donenfeld dismissed the featured strip as ridiculous and ordered it never to be on the cover of the series again. However, subsequent reports of the first issue's strong sales and follow up investigations revealed that Superman was the reason, thus the character returned to the covers, becoming a permanent presence in issue 19 onward.[9]

Cover of Action Comics #23 (April 1940). The first appearance of Superman's archenemy Lex Luthor.
Art by Joe Shuster.

Originally, Action Comics was an anthology title featuring a number of other stories in addition to the Superman story. Zatara, a magician, was one of the other characters who had their own stories in early issues. There was the hero Tex Thompson, who eventually became Mr. America and later the Americommando. Vigilante enjoyed a lengthy run in this series. Sometimes stories of a more humorous nature were included, such as those of Hayfoot Henry, a policeman who talked in rhyme. The series saw the introduction of several characters and themes which would become longstanding elements of the Superman mythos. Lois Lane made her debut in the first issue with Superman.[10] An unnamed "office boy" with a bow tie makes a brief appearance in the story "Superman's Phony Manager" published in Action Comics #6 (November 1938), which is claimed to be Jimmy Olsen's first appearance by several reference sources.[11][12][13]

Superman was first depicted as possessing the power of flight in issue #13 (June 1939).[14] Other new superpowers depicted for the first time for the character included X-ray vision in issue #18 (November 1939)[15] and telescopic vision and super-breath in issue #20 (January 1940).[16]

Luthor, a villain who would later become Superman's archenemy, was introduced in issue #23 (April 1940).[17] The original Toyman was created by writer Don Cameron and artist Ed Dobrotka in issue #64 (September 1943).[18] By 1942, artist Wayne Boring, who had previously been one of Shuster's assistants, had become a major artist on Superman.[19]

The Silver Age[edit]

Under editor Mort Weisinger,[20] the Action Comics title saw a further expansion of the Superman mythology. Writer Jerry Coleman and Wayne Boring created the Fortress of Solitude in issue #241 (June 1958)[21] and Otto Binder and Al Plastino debuted the villain Brainiac and the Bottle City of Kandor in the next issue the following month.[22]

Gradually, the size of the issues was decreased as the publisher was reluctant to raise the cover price from the original 10 cents, so there were fewer stories. For a while, Congo Bill and Tommy Tomorrow were the two features in addition to Superman. Writer Robert Bernstein and artist Howard Sherman revamped the "Congo Bill" backup feature in issue #248 (January 1959) in a story wherein the character gained the ability to swap bodies with a gorilla and his strip was renamed Congorilla.[23] The introduction of Supergirl by Otto Binder and Al Plastino occurred in issue #252 (May 1959).[24] Following this debut appearance, Supergirl adopted the secret identity of an orphan "Linda Lee" and made Midvale Orphanage her base of operations. In Action Comics #261 (February 1960), her pet cat Streaky was introduced[25] by Jerry Siegel and Jim Mooney.[26] Supergirl joined the Legion of Super-Heroes in issue #276[27] and acted for three years as Superman's "secret weapon," until her existence was revealed in Action Comics #285 (January 1962).[28] In the view of comics historian Les Daniels, artist Curt Swan became the definitive artist of Superman in the early 1960s with a "new look" to the character that replaced Wayne Boring's version.[29] Bizarro World first appeared in the story "The World of Bizarros!" in issue #262 (April 1960).[30] Writer Jim Shooter created the villain the Parasite in Action Comics #340 (Aug. 1966).[31]

The Bronze Age[edit]

Mort Weisinger retired from DC in 1970 and his final issue of Action Comics was issue #392 (September 1970).[20] Murray Boltinoff became the title's editor until issue #418. Metamorpho was the backup feature in issues #413-418 after which the character had a brief run as the backup in World's Finest Comics.[32] Julius Schwartz became the editor of the series with issue #419 (December 1972)[33] which also introduced the Human Target by Len Wein and Carmine Infantino in the back-up feature.[34] Green Arrow became a backup feature in #421 and ran through #458, initially rotating with the Human Target and the Atom.[35] Between issues #423 (April 1973) and #424 (June 1973), the series jumped ahead by one month due to DC's decision to change the cover dates of its publishing line.[36]

A new version of the Toyman was created by Cary Bates and Curt Swan in issue #432 (February 1974).[37] Martin Pasko wrote issue #500 (October 1979) which featured a history of the Superman canon as it existed at the time[38] and was published in the Dollar Comics format.[39]

The superheroine Vixen made her first appearance in Action Comics #521 (July 1981).[40] To mark the 45th anniversary of the series, Lex Luthor and Brainiac were both given an updated appearance in issue #544 (June 1983). Lex Luthor dons his war suit for the first time in the story "Luthor Unleashed!"[41] and Brainiac's appearance changes from the familiar green-skinned android to the metal skeletal-like robot in the story "Rebirth!".[42] Keith Giffen's Ambush Bug character made appearances in issues #560,[43] #563,[44] and #565.[45] Action Comics #579, written by Jean-Marc Lofficier and drawn by Giffen, featured an homage to Asterix where Superman and Jimmy Olsen are drawn back in time to a small village of indomitable Gauls.[46] Schwartz ended his run as editor of the series with issue #583 (September 1986) which featured the second part of the "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" story by Alan Moore and Curt Swan.[47]

The Modern Age[edit]

Following the events of Crisis on Infinite Earths, writer/artist John Byrne relaunched the Superman franchise in The Man of Steel limited series in 1986.[48] Action Comics became a team-up title with issue #584 (January 1987) featuring Superman and the New Teen Titans.[49] Other costars during this period included the Phantom Stranger,[50] the New Gods,[51] the Demon,[52] Hawkman,[53] the Green Lantern Corps,[54] the Metal Men,[55] Superboy,[56] Big Barda,[57] Mister Miracle,[58] Booster Gold,[59] the Martian Manhunter,[60] the Spectre,[61] Lois Lane and Lana Lang,[62] Checkmate,[63] Wonder Woman,[64] and Man-Bat.[65] The first Action Comics Annual was published in 1987 and featured Superman teaming with Batman in a story written by Byrne and drawn by Arthur Adams.[66] A DC Comics Bonus Book was included in issue #599 (April 1988).[67]

From May 24, 1988 - March 14, 1989,[68] the publication frequency was changed to weekly, the title changed to Action Comics Weekly, and the series became an anthology.[69] Prior to its launch, DC cancelled its ongoing Green Lantern Corps title, and made Green Lantern and his adventures exclusive to Action Comics Weekly.

The rest of these issues featured rotating serialized stories of other DC heroes, as try-outs that led to their own limited series. Characters with featured stories in the run included Black Canary, Blackhawk, Captain Marvel, Catwoman, Deadman, Nightwing, Phantom Lady, Phantom Stranger, Secret Six, Speedy, and Wild Dog. Each issue also featured a two-page Superman serial, a feature which, according to an editorial in the first weekly issue, was intended as a homage to the Superman newspaper strips of the past.

The final issue of the weekly was originally intended to feature a book-length encounter between Clark Kent and Hal Jordan penned by writer Neil Gaiman.[70] While Gaiman's story primarily teamed up Green Lantern and Superman, it also featured other characters from Action Comics Weekly, including the Blackhawks (in flashback), Deadman, and the Phantom Stranger. The story ran counter to DC editorial policy at the time as it portrayed Hal Jordan and Clark Kent as old friends who knew each other's secret identities. This was not considered canon in 1989 and Gaiman was unwilling to change this aspect of the story.[70] The story was pulled and a different story was run. Gaiman's story was finally published as a one-shot in Green Lantern/Superman: Legend of the Green Flame in November 2000.

The Action Comics Weekly experiment lasted only until the beginning of March 1989 and after a short break, issue #643 (July 1989) brought the title back onto a monthly schedule.[69] Writer/artist George Pérez took over the title[71] and was joined by scripter Roger Stern the following month.[72]

As writer of the series, Stern contributed to such storylines as "Panic in the Sky"[73] and "The Death of Superman". He created the Eradicator in Action Comics Annual #2[74][75] and later incorporated the character into the "Reign of the Supermen" story arc beginning in The Adventures of Superman #500.[76] The Eradicator then took over Action Comics as "the Last Son of Krypton" in issue #687 (June 1993).[77]

Stern wrote the 1991 story wherein Clark Kent finally revealed his identity as Superman to Lois Lane.[78][79]

2000s[edit]

Cover of Action Comics #800 (April 2003). A modern take on the cover of Action Comics #1.
Art by Drew Struzan.

Several major Superman storylines crossed over with Action Comics including "Emperor Joker" in 2000[80] and "Our Worlds at War" in 2001.[81] John Byrne returned to Action Comics for issues #827–835 working with writer Gail Simone in 2005-2006.

After the "One Year Later" company-wide storyline, Action Comics had a crossover arc with the Superman series, titled "Up, Up and Away!" which told of Clark Kent attempting to protect Metropolis without his powers until eventually regaining them.

The "Last Son" storyline was written by Geoff Johns and Richard Donner, the director of the 1978 film Superman: The Movie, and was pencilled by Adam Kubert. This story introduced the original character, Christopher Kent and adapts the classic Superman film villains, General Zod, Ursa and Non into the regular DC Universe continuity.[82] Issue #851 (August 2007) was presented in 3-D.[83]

Starting with issue #875 (May 2009), written by Greg Rucka and drawn by Eddy Barrows,[84] Thara Ak-Var and Chris Kent, took Superman's place as the main protagonists of the comic, while Superman left Earth to live on New Krypton. A Captain Atom back-up feature began in issue #879 (September 2009).

On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 (June 1938) sold at auction for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. The sale, by an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer, was through the Manhattan-based auction company ComicConnect.com.[85]

Although DC had initially announced Marc Guggenheim as writer of the title following the War of the Supermen limited series,[86] he was replaced by Paul Cornell.[87] Cornell featured Lex Luthor as the main character in Action Comics from issues #890-900[88] and Death appeared in issue #894, with the agreement of the character's creator, Neil Gaiman.[89] In April 2011, the 900th issue of Action Comics was released. It served as a conclusion for Luthor's "Black Ring" storyline and a continuation for the "Reign of Doomsday" storyline. The final issue of the original series was Action Comics #904.

The New 52[edit]

Cover of Action Comics vol. 2 #1 (November 2011).
Art by Rags Morales.

The title was relaunched from issue #1, as part of The New 52 by the creative team of writer Grant Morrison and artist Rags Morales.[90][91] As with all of the books associated with the DC relaunch, Clark Kent appears to be about five years younger than the previous incarnation of the character. Superheroes at large have appeared only in the past five years, and are viewed with at best, suspicion, and at worst, outright hostility. The storyline in Action Comics takes place about a year before the events of Justice League #1, and was referred to by DC Co-Publisher Dan DiDio as "DC Universe Year Zero" while JL operates as "Year One."[92] The Man of Steel is not yet trusted by the citizens of Metropolis and wears a basic costume consisting of a caped t-shirt, jeans and work boots. The first issue has had five printings as of March 2012.[93]

The first story arc of the relaunched series, titled Superman and the Men of Steel for the collected edition, begins very early in Superman's career as he starts making a name for himself as a champion of the oppressed in Metropolis. He captures the attention of the military and scientist Lex Luthor, who are both interested in testing his capabilities as well as discovering what kind of threat he represents.

Following the completion of Morrison's storyline, writer Andy Diggle and artist Tony Daniel became the new creative team on the title with issue #19. Diggle announced his resignation as the writer of the series shortly before his first issue went on sale.[94] Diggle left the title with only one issue completed (he would be co-writer for #20 and co-plot issue #21), with Daniel taking on full scripting and art duties for the two following issues completing the three part story arc "Hybrid". Scott Lobdell will be writing the series after Diggle and Daniel's departure.[95] Writer Greg Pak and artist Aaron Kuder became the new creative team on the series with issue #25 (Jan. 2014).[96]

Publication changes and special numbering[edit]

In number of issues, Action Comics is the longest running DC Comics series, followed by Detective Comics. A departure from a strict monthly schedule was four giant-size Supergirl reprint issues published as a 13th issue annually: issues #334 (March 1966), #347 (March/April 1967), #360 (March/April 1968), and #373 (March/April 1969). Action Comics has not had an uninterrupted run, having been on a three-month hiatus on two separate occasions. The first of these occurred during the summer of 1986, with issue #583 bearing a cover date of September, and issue #584 listing January 1987. The regular Superman titles were suspended during this period to allow for the publication of John Byrne's six-issue The Man of Steel limited series.[69] Publication was again suspended between issues #686 and #687 (February and June 1993) following the "Death of Superman" and "Funeral for a Friend" storylines, before Action Comics returned in June 1993 with the "Reign of the Supermen" arc.[69]

The series was published weekly from May 24, 1988 - March 14, 1989.[68] (See detail in The Modern Age section above.) The temporarily increased frequency of issues allowed Action Comics to further surpass the older Detective Comics in the number of individual issues published. It originally passed Detective Comics in the 1970s when that series was bi-monthly for a number of years. This change lasted from issue #601 to issue #642. During this time, Superman appeared only in a two-page story per issue; he was still the only character to appear in every issue of the run.

An issue #0 (October 1994) was published between issues #703 and #704 as part of the Zero Month after the "Zero Hour: Crisis in Time" crossover event. There was also an issue #1,000,000 (November 1998) during the "DC One Million" crossover event in October 1998 between issues #748 and #749.

On June 1, 2011, it was announced that all series taking place within the shared DC Universe would be either canceled or relaunched with new #1 issues, after a new continuity was created in the wake of the Flashpoint event. Although being DC's longest running series having reached issue #904 at the end of its initial run, Action Comics was no exception, and the first issue of the new series was released on September 7, 2011.

Collected editions[edit]

The Action Comics series is included in a number of trade paperbacks and hardcovers. These generally reprint only the Superman stories from the given issues.

Awards[edit]

Action Comics #684 was part of "The Death of Superman" storyline which won the Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award for "Favorite Comic Book Story" for 1992. Action Comics #687-691 were part of "The Reign of the Supermen" storyline, which won the same award for 1993.[105]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Action Comics at the Grand Comics Database
  2. ^ Action Comics volume 2 at the Grand Comics Database
  3. ^ Muir, John Kenneth (July 2008). The Encyclopedia of Superheroes on Film and Television. McFarland & Co. p. 539. ISBN 978-0-7864-3755-9. Retrieved 2011-05-31. 
  4. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1930s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "With the launch of Action Comics, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster finally saw their brainchild in print, and readers responded with rave reviews. Superman became the first comic book mega-star and proved that comics were more than a fad. The Golden Age of Comics was born." 
  5. ^ Goulart, Ron. Comic Book Culture. Collectors Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-888054-38-5. 
  6. ^ Jones, Gerard (July 2006). Men of Tomorrow. Arrow Books. pp. 82–84. ISBN 978-0-09-948706-7. 
  7. ^ Jones, p. 120.
  8. ^ Jones, p. 124.
  9. ^ Van Lente, Fred (2012). The Comic Book History of Comics. IDW Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 1613771975. 
  10. ^ Wallace "1930s" in Dolan, p. 20: "Lois Lane was established early...but she rejected Clark [Kent] as a 'spineless, unbearable coward.'"
  11. ^ Superman: The Ultimate Guide to the Man of Steel page 126, Dorling Kindersley Ltd. (2006)
  12. ^ Wallace "1930s" in Dolan, p. 21: "Action Comics #6 (November 1938) The Man of Steels's future pal Jimmy Olsen made his first appearance within this issue of Action Comics, although he was identified only as an 'inquisitive office-boy'"
  13. ^ Action Comics #6 (November 1938) at the Grand Comics Database
  14. ^ Wallace "1930s" in Dolan, p. 25: "Superman was presented with his first opportunity to demonstrate true flight in Action Comics #13."
  15. ^ Wallace "1930s" in Dolan, p. 25: "Superman gained a new power in November's Action Comics #18 and it would come to be one of his most famous - X-ray vision."
  16. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 33: "Superman's telescopic vision and super-breath were introduced in January's Action Comics #20."
  17. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 31: "The debut of the brilliant scientist known as Luthor was a sign of things to come."
  18. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 45: "In writer Don Cameron and artist Ed Dobrotka's 'The Terrible Toyman', a quirky toy maker used his bizarre playthings to commit crimes."
  19. ^ Daniels, Les (1995). "The Superman Style Refining the Man of Steel". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. Bulfinch. p. 28. ISBN 0821220764. "The image of Superman that eventually became preeminent was Wayne Boring's. By 1942 the former assistant to Joe Shuster was working on his own for DC, turning out pencilled and inked pages for Action Comics and Superman." 
  20. ^ a b Mort Weisinger's run on Action Comics at the Grand Comics Database
  21. ^ Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 91: "Superman's Fortress of Solitude was seen for the first time. The story 'The Super-Key to Fort Superman', by writer Jerry Coleman and artist Wayne Boring, revealed the secrets of the Fortress."
  22. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 90: "The mythology of Krypton expanded dramatically with the introduction of the evil Brainiac and the Bottle City of Kandor in the Action Comics #242 story 'The Super-Duel in Space', written by Otto Binder and [drawn by] artist Al Plastino"
  23. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 92: "Writer Robert Bernstein and artist Howard Sherman gave Congo Bill a new direction in Action Comics #248."
  24. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 94: "Action Comics #252 revealed there was another survivor [of Krypton] - Supergirl. Kara Zor-El (Supergirl) crashed to Earth, having been sent there by her parents."
  25. ^ Siegel, Jerry (w), Mooney, Jim (p), Mooney, Jim (i). "Supergirl's Super Pet!" Action Comics 261 (February 1960)
  26. ^ Eury, Michael (2006). "Jim Mooney Interview". The Krypton Companion. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 1-893905-61-6. "Streaky the Supercat was my design. I think the writer came up with the initial idea, but I designed him so he looked a little bit more like an animated cat." 
  27. ^ Siegel, Jerry (w), Mooney, Jim (p), Mooney, Jim (i). "Supergirl's Three Super Girl-Friends!" Action Comics 276 (May 1961)
  28. ^ McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 105: "In January's Action Comics #285 written by Jerry Siegel, with art by Jim Mooney, Superman's Kryptonian cousin Kara Zor-El was finally revealed as Supergirl to a very receptive Earth."
  29. ^ Daniels "The Superman Family Strength in Numbers", p. 118: "By 1961, Swan's new look would replace Wayne Boring's patriarchal version. Swan's Superman became definitive, and ultimately he would draw, as he says, 'more Superman stories than anybody else.'"
  30. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 100: "When Superman visited the dead planet inhabited by Bizarro...writer Otto Binder and artist Wayne Boring introduced an entire world filled with the backward beings."
  31. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 118: "With a story written by Jim Shooter and drawn by Al Plastino, the Parasite entered Superman's life."
  32. ^ Stroud, Bryan (May 2013). "Metamorpho in Action Comics". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (64): 22–27. 
  33. ^ Julius Schwartz's run on Action Comics at the Grand Comics Database
  34. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 153: "Starting as a back-up feature in the pages of Action Comics, scribe Len Wein and artist Carmine Infantino introduced Christopher Chance, a master of disguise who would turn himself into a human target - provided you could meet his price."
  35. ^ Kingman, Jim (May 2013). "The Ballad of Ollie and Dinah". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (64): 10–21. 
  36. ^ Levitz, Paul (2010). 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Taschen America. p. 516. ISBN 978-3-8365-1981-6. "Cover dates on comics didn't match magazine dating norms, and by 1973 Marvel's cover dates made them appear newer than DC's, so DC decided to skip using May 1973 and go straight to June." 
  37. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 158: "Writer Cary Bates and artist Curt Swan gave Superman all the 'fun' he could handle with the savvy new Toyman in Action Comics #432."
  38. ^ Pasko, Martin (w), Swan, Curt (p), Chiaramonte, Frank (i). "The Life Story of Superman" Action Comics 500 (October 1979)
  39. ^ Romero, Max (July 2012). "I'll Buy That For a Dollar! DC Comics' Dollar Comics". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (57): 39–41. 
  40. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 194: "[Superman] encountered the new mystery woman known as Vixen for the first time. In a story written by Gerry Conway and pencilled by Curt Swan, supermodel activist Mari McCabe leapt into the Man of Steel's life."
  41. ^ Bates, Cary (w), Swan, Curt (p), Anderson, Murphy (i). "Luthor Unleashed!" Action Comics 544 (June 1983)
  42. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Kane, Gil (p), Kane, Gil (i). "Rebirth!" Action Comics 544 (June 1983)
  43. ^ Giffen, Keith, Fleming, Robert Loren (w), Giffen, Keith (p), Oksner, Bob (i). "Police Blotter" Action Comics 560 (October 1984)
  44. ^ Giffen, Keith, Fleming, Robert Loren (w), Giffen, Keith (p), Oksner, Bob (i). "Black Beauty" Action Comics 563 (January 1985)
  45. ^ Giffen, Keith, Fleming, Robert Loren (w), Giffen, Keith (p), Oksner, Bob (i). "$ellout or Manna from Mando" Action Comics 565 (March 1985)
  46. ^ Lofficier, Jean-Marc, Lofficier, Randy (w), Giffen, Keith (p), Oksner, Bob (i). "Prisoners of Time! (1986 A.D. to CCLIII A.D.)" Action Comics 579 (May 1986)
  47. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 220: "In 'Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?', a two-part story written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Curt Swan, the adventures of the Silver Age Superman came to a dramatic close."
  48. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 221: "In the six-issue miniseries entitled [The] Man of Steel, the mammoth task of remaking Superman fell to popular writer/artist John Byrne...The result was an overwhelming success, popular with fans both old and new."
  49. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Squatter" Action Comics 584 (January 1987)
  50. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "And the Graves Give up Their Dead ..." Action Comics 585 (February 1987)
  51. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "The Champion" Action Comics 586 (March 1987)
  52. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Cityscape!" Action Comics 587 (April 1987)
  53. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "All Wars Must End Part Two" Action Comics 588 (May 1987)
  54. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Green on Green" Action Comics 589 (June 1987)
  55. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Better Dying Through Chemistry" Action Comics 590 (July 1987) and
    Byrne, John (w), Andru, Ross (p), Byrne, John; Williams, Keith (i). "Element 126" Action Comics 599 (April 1988)
  56. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Byrne, John; Williams, Keith (i). "Past Imperfect" Action Comics 591 (August 1987)
  57. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Byrne, John; Williams, Keith (i). "...A Walk on the Darkside" Action Comics 592 (September 1987)
  58. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Byrne, John; Williams, Keith (i). "The Suicide Snare" Action Comics 593 (October 1987)
  59. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Byrne, John; Williams, Keith (i). "All that Glisters" Action Comics 594 (November 1987)
  60. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Byrne, John; Williams, Keith (i). "The Ghost of Superman" Action Comics 595 (December 1987)
  61. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Byrne, John; Williams, Keith (i). "Hell is Where the Heart Is..." Action Comics 596 (January 1988)
  62. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Starr, Leonard; Williams, Keith (i). "Visitor" Action Comics 597 (February 1988)
  63. ^ Kupperberg, Paul; Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Templeton, Ty (i). "Checkmate" Action Comics 598 (March 1988)
  64. ^ Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John; Pérez, George (p), Pérez, George (i). "Different Worlds" Action Comics 600 (May 1988)
  65. ^ Byrne, John (w), Mignola, Mike (p), Mignola, Mike (i). "The Dark Where Madness Lies" Action Comics 600 (May 1988)
  66. ^ Byrne, John (w), Arthur Adams (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Skeeter" Action Comics Annual 1 (1987)
  67. ^ Action Comics #599 at the Grand Comics Database
  68. ^ a b Action Comics Weekly at the Grand Comics Database
  69. ^ a b c d Miller, J. J.; Maggie Thompson, Peter Bickford, Brent Frankenhoff (September 2005). "Action Comics". The Comic Buyer's Guide Standard Catalog of Comic Books (4 ed.). Krause Publications. pp. 35–44. ISBN 978-0-87349-993-4. 
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