Activ Solar

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Activ Solar GmbH
Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung
Industry Photovoltaics
Founded 2008 (2008)
Headquarters Vienna, Austria
Area served
Key people
Kaveh Ertefai (CEO)[1]
Johann Harter (COO)[2]
Mykhailo Cherevko (Director, Ukraine subsidiary)
Products Polysilicon
Services Large-scale solar PV project development
Number of employees
1,400+ (2011; together with subsidiaries)
Subsidiaries Diamond Activ Solar GmbH
PJSC Semiconductor Plant
Activ Solar LLC (Ukraine)

Activ Solar GmbH, headquartered in Vienna, Austria was a developer of solar energy. It was engaged in the production of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) for the solar PV industry and the development of large-scale photovoltaic power stations in Ukraine. The company is a member of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association.[3][4][5][6] In February 2016, it filed for insolvency.[7]


Polysilicon production[edit]

Activ Solar produced high-purity polysilicon at its subsidiary PJSC Semiconductor Plant, located in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.[8] The production of semiconductor materials at the original Zaporizhia Titan and Magnesium Plant dates back to 1935. The facility formed the foundation of PJSC Semiconductor Plant, which began production of semiconductor-grade polysilicon in 1964.[8] It was separated from the Zaporizhia Titan and Magnesium Plant in 2002.[9]

The plant was historically also the only manufacturer of high-purity trichlorosilane in the Soviet Union. After comprehensive refurbishment and modernization, PJSC Semiconductor Plant reached an annual capacity of 2,500 metric tons of polysilicon and 27,000 metric tons of trichlorosilane (HCl3Si). The facility produces ~20 metric tons per annum of monocrystalline silicon using legacy equipment with a plan to expand to ~400 metric tons per annum. The factory also produces silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4), hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrochloric acid.[10]

Solar PV project development[edit]

Activ Solar developed large-scale solar photovoltaic installations. As of November 2012, it had developed six[11] solar PV power stations with 313.35 megawatts (MW) of installed capacity on the Crimean Peninsula and Odessa region.

Rodnikovoye Solar Park (7,5 MW)

The company constructed Ukraine's first large-scale Photovoltaic power plant 7.5 MW Rodnikovoye Solar Park in February 2011. The power plant was built near the town of Rodnikovoye, about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) away from Simferopol, the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The total number of solar modules installed reached about 33,800 on a total surface area of approximately 15 hectares (37 acres).[12][13]

In October 2011, Activ Solar commissioned one of the world's largest solar power stations, the 80 MW Okhotnykovo Solar Park. Installation consisting of approximately 360,000 ground-mounted PV-modules and spanning over 160 hectares (400 acres) able to generate 100 GWh of electricity per year enough to meet the energy needs of about 20,000 households.[14][15][16][17]

Perovo Solar Park (105,56 MW)
Mityaevo Solar Park (31,55 MW)

In December 2011, Activ Solar completed the 105.56 MW Perovo Solar Park, amongst the largest in the world. Built in record-setting time, Perovo's more than 440,000 crystalline solar PV modules can produce as much as 132.5 GWh) of electricity per year, enough to meet the needs of Simferopol. More than 105,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions will be avoided.[18][19][20]

In April 2012, Activ Solar finished work on its fourth large-scale project, 31.55 MW station located in the village of Mityaevo in Crimea. The ground-mounted power station houses over 134,000 polycrystalline modules, installed in double rows and connected by over 440 kilometres (270 mi) of cable, and able to generate approximately 40 GWh of electricity per annum enough to supply 8,000 households.[21]

In July 2012, Activ Solar completed 42.95 MW Starkozache power plant in Odessa Oblast. It is installed over a surface of 80 hectares (200 acres) and consists of 185,952 multi-crystalline solar modules and 41 inverters. The solar plant is able to generate 54.106 GWh of electricity per annum, enough to supply approximately 11,000 households and saves up to 44,000 tons of CO2 emissions per year.[22][23]

Dunayskaya Solar Park (43,14 MW)
Activ Solar’s “Have a sunny day!” sign on Dunayskaya SPP

In November 2012, Activ Solar completed the second phase of the 43.14 MW Dunayskaya Solar Power Station in Odessa Oblast. Located in the southern part of Odessa Oblast, it comprises 182,380 multicrystalline photovoltaic modules, 40 inverter stations and around 645 kilometres (401 mi) of cable.[24]

In February 2013, Activ Solar announced the start of commissioning of the 29.3 MW Voznesensk Solar Power Station in Mykolaiv region.[25] Voznesensk Solar Power Station consists of 121,176 multicrystalline solar modules and 27 inverter stations installed on a four-row mounting system. The power station's electricity production capacity totals 35,000 megawatt hours per annum and will save over 28,000 tons of CO2 per annum.

Lymanske Solar Park (43.4 MW)

In April 2013, Activ Solar announced the commissioning of the 43.4 MW Lymanske Solar Power Plant in the south-western part of Odessa Oblast.[26] It comprises 181.192 multicrystalline, installed in one row and connected by over 41 inverter stations. The solar plant will generate 59.415 GWh of electricity per annum and will save up to 46.179 tons of CO2 emissions per year.[27]

Research and development[edit]

Activ Solar and Diamond Aircraft Industries exhibited a prototype aircraft wing with embedded solar panels at the Paris Air Show 2011 Le Bourget

Activ Solar owned a research and development joint-venture with Diamond Aircraft Industries with an aim to develop products and applications for the photovoltaic industry.[8] Diamond Activ Solar exhibited a solar aircraft wing at the Paris Air Show 2011 Le Bourget.[28]

Awards and recognitions[edit]

In February 2011, Rodnikovoye Solar Park was recognized as one of the winners for the "Best Project in the Field of Renewable Energy" by Top-100.[29] Energy Efficiency Award 2011, organized and conducted by the State Agency on Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Ukraine (SAEE).

In December 2011, 82.65 MWp Ohotnikovo Solar Power Station was recognized as the "Best project in the field of Renewable Energy" by Green Awards Ukraine,[30] contest where the jury is presented by the leading experts in the field of environmental technologies and practices of the European level, public opinion leaders and representatives of influential international organizations and institutions.


Activ Solar was controlled by Ukraine's former first deputy prime minister Andriy Klyuyev and his brother Serhiy Klyuyev.[9][31][32][33][34][1] CEO of Activ Solar, Kaveh Ertefai, is Serhiy Klyuyev's son-in-law.[35][32][1] Bogdan Klyuyev, son of Andriy Klyuyev, is a business developer manager of Activ Solar LLC (Ukraine).[36][37][38] According to Kyiv Post, Klyuyev's companies are registered at the same building where Activ Solar has its representative office in Ukraine.[32]

According to the report by Ukrayinska Pravda, Solar Activ was founded by Slav Beteiligung GmbH, owned by Slav AG, investment firm of by brothers Kluyevs. In late 2008, the ownership was transferred to Kaveh Ertefay. In July 2009, ownership was transferred to P&A Corporate Trust.[36] According to a British register, P&A Corporate Trust owns British firm Blythe (Europe) Ltd, which owns 35% of company Tantalit which was the nominal owner of the residence of President Viktor Yanukovych at Mezhyhirya.[35]

According to the company register, in 2011 Activ Solar was 100% owned by Liechtenstein-registered P&A Corporate Trust.[8][39] According to the company, shareholders of the company were European institutional and private investors. According to Johann Harter (COO), all shareholders were Austrian institutional and private investors and there were no Ukrainian private investors or companies associated with the Ukraine among the shareholders.[2] According to Kave Ertefay (CEO), 50% of the shares belonged to investors from Austria and the rest of the EU.[1] Interfax-Ukraina agency reported that controlling stake in Activ Solar belongs to Christian Dries, the owner of Diamond Aircraft Industries, and the rest is owned by the management of the company.[40] At the beginning of 2016, the sole owner of the company was Viennese lawyer Stefan Benesch.[7]


On 1 April 2014, Activ Solar stopped operations of its solar power plants in Crimea due to unclear legal situation after annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. While Ukrainian authorities stopped paying feed-in tariff for Crimean solar plants, Crimean and Russian authorities also refused to pay it.[41] In spring 2015, Crimean solar plants were seized by Russian banks to cover outstanding loans of Activ Solar.[42][43] In November 2015, the China National Building Material Company (CNBM) received a clearance to buy the Activ Solar's subsidiary operating ten solar parks located in Mykolaiv and Odessa oblasts.[44] According to the company, it had controlled these power stations since mid-2014 as collateral of its €160 million loan to Activ Solar.[45] CNBM s also interested to buy the Zaporizhia Semiconductor Plant.[46]

Investigation had been launched concerning the Ukrainian state credit grant to the Zaporizhia Semiconductor Plant in 2010.[46] In October 2015, the Ukrainian court ordered repayment of the €57 million grant.[47] As a result, Activ Solar filed for reorganisation in the Commercial Court of Vienna on 10 February 2016.[7][47] The company explained this move with challenging market conditions in Ukraine due to the economic and political crisis in the region, which affected production in the Zaporizhia Semiconductor Plant.[48] For that time, Activ Solar's debt had amounted €503.4 million while its assets accounted €18.69 million.[49] The company proposed a two-years restructuring plan with 20% of its debts repayment.[7][47] Attorney Ute Toifl was appointed as an insolvency administrator.[47] Also the Zaporizhia Semiconductor Plant went into bankrupt.[46]


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  29. ^ В 2011 году на энергоэффективность запланировано почти 600 млн. грн. бюджетных средств. Урядовий портал (in Russian). 2011-02-15. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
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