Adıyaman

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For the village in Iran, see Adiyaman, Iran.
Adıyaman
Municipality
Atatürk Boulevard in Adiyaman
Atatürk Boulevard in Adiyaman
Adıyaman is located in Turkey
Adıyaman
Adıyaman
Coordinates: 37°45′50″N 38°16′40″E / 37.76389°N 38.27778°E / 37.76389; 38.27778Coordinates: 37°45′50″N 38°16′40″E / 37.76389°N 38.27778°E / 37.76389; 38.27778
Country Turkey
Province Adıyaman
Government
 • Mayor Fehmi Hüsrev Kutlu (AKP)
 • Governor Mahmut Demirtaş [1]
Area[2]
 • District 1,679.21 km2 (648.35 sq mi)
Population (2012)[3]
 • Urban 217,463
 • District 273,820
 • District density 160/km2 (420/sq mi)
Website www.adiyaman.bel.tr

Adıyaman is a city in southeastern Turkey, capital of the Adıyaman Province. It is one of the fastest-growing cities in Turkey. The population rose from 100,045 (1990) to 202,735 in 2010.[4] Adıyaman has a Kurdish majority and a sizable Turkish minority.[5]

Etymology[edit]

The city officially had the Arabic name Hısn-ı Mansur ("Castle of Mansur") until the year 1926, named after the fortified castle perched on a hill around which the city grew. A Kurdish variation of the same name, Semsur, is also attested in Ottoman sources. As the official name was difficult for the locals to pronounce, people were referring the city as adı yaman since early 19th century, which means "its name is tough" or "(the place) whose name is tough" in Turkish.[citation needed] Another likely origin of the modern Turkish name is the bad reputation that the province enjoyed due to difficult terrain and widespread banditry, hence "adı yaman", which can also translate as "(the place) which has a bad name (reputation)".[6] In 1926, this term was adopted as the official name of the city. Although the word yaman had very negative connotations in Ottoman Turkish,[7] it has earned a strong positive connotation in modern Turkish, just like the English word "terrific".

Climate[edit]

Adıyaman has a hot summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) under both the Köppen classification, and a dry-hot summer subtropical climate (Csa) under the Trewartha classification, with some continental characteristics. Summers are very hot and very dry. Temperatures often reach 40 °C (104 °F) at the height of summer. The highest recorded temperature was 45.3 °C (113.5 °F) on 30 July 2000. Winters in Adıyaman are cool to cold with heavy precipitation. Due to its inland location and relatively high altitude, frost and snow are common. The lowest recorded temperature was −14.4 °C (6.1 °F) on 24 January 1972.

Climate data for Adıyaman (1950 - 2014)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
21.7
(71.1)
28.3
(82.9)
34.5
(94.1)
39.0
(102.2)
40.7
(105.3)
45.3
(113.5)
44.2
(111.6)
40.3
(104.5)
36.1
(97)
29.4
(84.9)
26.5
(79.7)
45.3
(113.5)
Average high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
10.2
(50.4)
14.8
(58.6)
20.5
(68.9)
26.5
(79.7)
33.1
(91.6)
37.7
(99.9)
37.5
(99.5)
32.9
(91.2)
25.5
(77.9)
17.0
(62.6)
10.6
(51.1)
22.91
(73.24)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
5.8
(42.4)
10.0
(50)
15.1
(59.2)
20.6
(69.1)
26.8
(80.2)
31.0
(87.8)
30.5
(86.9)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66)
11.6
(52.9)
6.5
(43.7)
17.24
(63.03)
Average low °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
2.2
(36)
5.5
(41.9)
9.8
(49.6)
14.3
(57.7)
19.6
(67.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.3
(73.9)
18.8
(65.8)
13.5
(56.3)
7.5
(45.5)
3.2
(37.8)
11.88
(53.38)
Record low °C (°F) −14.4
(6.1)
−10.0
(14)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
3.4
(38.1)
10.6
(51.1)
15.0
(59)
15.8
(60.4)
9.6
(49.3)
2.2
(36)
−3.5
(25.7)
−8.4
(16.9)
−14.4
(6.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 133.7
(5.264)
101.2
(3.984)
88.3
(3.476)
65.7
(2.587)
42.0
(1.654)
7.6
(0.299)
1.0
(0.039)
0.7
(0.028)
5.3
(0.209)
45.5
(1.791)
76.3
(3.004)
137.7
(5.421)
705
(27.756)
Average precipitation days 12.2 11.8 11.8 11.3 8.3 2.4 0.6 0.4 1.3 6.6 8.9 12.0 87.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 4.6 4.4 5.6 7.3 9.4 12.0 12.4 11.5 10.1 7.3 5.3 4.0 7.82
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[8]

History[edit]

Yenipinar Mosque

The area has been inhabited as far back as it is possible to discover. Research in the cave of Palanlı 10 km north of Adıyaman show occupation in 40,000 BC and other digs in Samsat reveal continuous occupation through the stone and Bronze Ages.

From 900BC onwards came waves of invasions from Assyrians, Persians, and Macedonians until the Commagene kingdom was founded in 69BC. This was the civilisation that built the statues on top of nearby Mount Nemrut. The capital was in Samsat (Samosata) but the town of Adıyaman was a walled city of the Commagenes. The city walls of Adıyaman have been restored and replaced many times since.

The Commagene kingdom lasted until the Romans came in 72AD. Yet more campaigns and invasions followed and Adıyaman was controlled by Byzantines 395-670, Ummayads from 670 and then Abbasids 758-926. Then the area returned to Byzantine control during 859-1114. The Arabs returned from 1114 to 1204 and finally came the arrival of the Turks. The Arabic name for the castle and town was Hısn-ı Mansur[citation needed].

Turks moved into the area from 1114 onwards and for most of the 13th century was settled by the Selçuk Turks often disrupted by Mongol invasions. From 1298 to 1516 the town was under the control of the Mameluks. Adıyaman was brought into the Ottoman Empire by Selim I in 1516, but local power often rested with the Dulkadiroğulları tribe of Turkmen people that settled here[citation needed].

Adıyaman today[edit]

The city of Adıyaman provides shops and infrastructure to an agricultural region watered by the River Euphrates. It is not an industrial city, people riding mules and donkeys are still a common sight. The Atatürk reservoir is near the city and with more investment in irrigation, this could become a richer agricultural zone. Although Adiyaman still has a lot of conservative people, it is easy to find a place that sells liquor. The cuisine is typical of south-east Turkey, including dishes like çiğ köfte and Maraş-style ice-cream.

The city is served by Adıyaman Airport.

Adıyamanspor is a minor league football team.

Places of interest[edit]

Ruins of Perre

There is some passing tourist trade, the main tourist attraction being Mount Nemrut.

  • The caves of Pirin (ancient city of Perre) are 5 km (3 mi). from Adiyaman. These have been used as a burial ground for thousands of years. The sights include the ruins of the city and burial caves carved into the rock.
  • The only active church in Adiyaman Province is located here, where it is the center of the Syriac Orthodox patriarchal vicarate of Adiyaman.[9][10] It was renovated and reopened in 2012.[11]

The ancient city of Arsemia, the summer retreat of the Kingdom of Commagene, can also be visited. Adiyaman is one of the fastest developing cities in Turkey, with many cafes, cinemas and shopping centers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]