Robot Scientist

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Adam (robot))
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Robot Scientist
Type of projectScientific Research
OwnerRoss King

Robot Scientist (also known as Adam[5]) is a laboratory robot created and developed by a group of scientists including Ross King, Kenneth Whelan, Ffion Jones, Philip Reiser, Christopher Bryant, Stephen Muggleton, Douglas Kell, Emma Byrne and Steve Oliver.[2][6][7][8][9][10]


As a prototype for a "robot scientist", Adam is able to perform independent experiments to test hypotheses and interpret findings without human guidance, removing some of the drudgery of laboratory experimentation.[11][12] Adam is capable of:

While researching yeast-based functional genomics, Adam became the first machine in history to have discovered new scientific knowledge independently of its human creators.[5][17][18]

Adam and Eve[edit]

Adam's research studied baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)[2] and is one of two robot scientists along with "Eve"[13][19] (named after Adam and Eve), a robot currently doing research on drug screening.[20][21][22][23][24]

The overall process of testing the reproducibility and robustness of the cancer biology literature via Eve

Eve has been used for semi-automated testing for reproducibility of experimental cancer research.[25][26]


  1. ^ a b "2 April 2009 – Robot scientist becomes first machine to discover new scientific knowledge – Media release – BBSRC". Archived from the original on 14 May 2013.
  2. ^ a b c King, R. D.; Whelan, K. E.; Jones, F. M.; Reiser, P. G. K.; Bryant, C. H.; Muggleton, S. H.; Kell, D. B.; Oliver, S. G. (2004). "Functional genomic hypothesis generation and experimentation by a robot scientist". Nature. 427 (6971): 247–252. Bibcode:2004Natur.427..247K. doi:10.1038/nature02236. PMID 14724639. S2CID 4428725.
  3. ^ BBSRC grant A robot scientist for drug design and chemical genetics, via Research Councils UK
  4. ^ BBSRC grant: A robot scientist for yeast systems biology, via Research Councils UK
  5. ^ a b King, P.; Rowland, J.; Aubrey, W.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Soldatova, L. N.; Whelan, K. E.; Clare, A.; Young, M.; Sparkes, A.; Oliver, S. G.; Pir, P. (2009). "The Robot Scientist Adam". Computer. 42 (7): 46–54. doi:10.1109/MC.2009.270. S2CID 13920692.
  6. ^ "Robot Scientist at Aberystwyth University". Archived from the original on 12 June 2011.
  7. ^ Sparkes, A.; Aubrey, W.; Byrne, E.; Clare, A.; Khan, M. N.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Rowland, J.; Soldatova, L. N.; Whelan, K. E.; Young, M.; King, R. D. (2010). "Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery". Automated Experimentation. 2: 1. doi:10.1186/1759-4499-2-1. PMC 2813846. PMID 20119518.
  8. ^ King, R. D.; Rowland, J.; Oliver, S. G.; Young, M.; Aubrey, W.; Byrne, E.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Pir, P.; Soldatova, L. N.; Sparkes, A.; Whelan, K. E.; Clare, A. (2009). "Make Way for Robot Scientists". Science. 325 (5943): 945. Bibcode:2009Sci...325R.945K. doi:10.1126/science.325_945a. PMID 19696334.
  9. ^ Anderson, Philip W.; Abrahams, Elihu (2009). "Machines Fall Short of Revolutionary Science". Science. 324 (5934): 1515–1516. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1515A. doi:10.1126/science.324_1515c. PMID 19541975.
  10. ^ a b King, R. D. (2011). "Rise of the Robo Scientists". Scientific American. 304 (1): 72–76. Bibcode:2011SciAm.304a..72K. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0111-72. PMID 21265330.
  11. ^ Mosher, Dave (13 April 2011). "Developer of Robot Scientist Wants to Standardize Science". Wired.
  12. ^ Buchen, Lizzie (2 April 2009). "Robot Makes Scientific Discovery All by Itself". Wired.
  13. ^ a b Wilson, N. (2004). "Technology: A robot scientist". Nature Reviews Genetics. 5 (3): 164. doi:10.1038/nrg1300. S2CID 5633301.
  14. ^ Greenemeier, Larry (2009). "Meet Adam and Eve: AI Lab-Bots That Can Take On Reams of Data". Scientific American. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
  15. ^ Kleiner, Kurt (2009). "Robot scientist makes discoveries without human help". New Scientist.
  16. ^ Gill, Victoria (2 April 2009). "Robo-scientist's first findings". BBC News.
  17. ^ King, R. D.; Rowland, J.; Oliver, S. G.; Young, M.; Aubrey, W.; Byrne, E.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Pir, P.; Soldatova, L. N.; Sparkes, A.; Whelan, K. E.; Clare, A. (2009). "The Automation of Science". Science. 324 (5923): 85–89. Bibcode:2009Sci...324...85K. doi:10.1126/science.1165620. PMID 19342587. S2CID 14948753.
  18. ^ Cookson, Clive (2009). "Robot achieves scientific first". Financial Times.
  19. ^ Williams, K.; Bilsland, E.; Sparkes, A.; Aubrey, W.; Young, M.; Soldatova, L. N.; De Grave, K.; Ramon, J.; De Clare, M.; Sirawaraporn, W.; Oliver, S. G.; King, R. D. (2015). "Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases". Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 12 (104): 20141289. doi:10.1098/rsif.2014.1289. PMC 4345494. PMID 25652463.
  20. ^ Robot Scientist Helps Design New Drugs, Voice of America
  21. ^ Robot scientist’ Eve could speed up search for new drugs,
  22. ^ 'Robot scientist' holds key to new drugs, BBC News
  23. ^ 'Robot Scientist' Could Speed Up Drug Discovery, Sky News
  24. ^ 'Robot Scientist' Could Speed Up Drug Discovery, Yahoo News
  25. ^ "'Robot scientist' Eve finds that less than one-third of scientific results are reproducible". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  26. ^ Roper, Katherine; Abdel-Rehim, A.; Hubbard, Sonya; Carpenter, Martin; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Soldatova, Larisa; King, Ross D. (2022). "Testing the reproducibility and robustness of the cancer biology literature by robot". Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 19 (189): 20210821. doi:10.1098/rsif.2021.0821. PMC 8984295. PMID 35382578.

See also[edit]