Rainer was born in Graz, Austria-Hungary. In 1917, at age 18, he was measured at 122.55 cm (4 ft 0.25 in). A typical defining characteristic of dwarfism is an adult height below 147 cm (4 ft 10 in). Then, likely as a result of a pituitary tumor, he had a dramatic growth spurt so that by 1931 he had reached a height of 218 cm (7 ft 2 in). As a result of his gigantism he became bedridden for the rest of his life. When he died in 1950 he had reached a height of 234 cm (7 ft 8 in). His feet measured 33.3 cm (13.1 inches), going from EUR shoe size 43 (US size 10) at aged 19 to size 53 (US 20) only three years later. His hands measured 23.9 cm (9.4 inches) and he weighed 109 kg (241 pounds).
- Guinness World Records, 2004.
- Bellows, Alan. "The Man Who Was a Dwarf and a Giant", DamnInteresting.com, 1 December 2005.
- Hirsch, Obar. Two Types of Gigantism Due to Similar Tumors. Discussion of Growth* Confinia Neurologica, Vol. 21, No. 4 (1961)
- Adam Rainer at The Tallest Man
- Entry at FindaGrave.com (no grave photo; cremated)
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