|eastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, northwestern CAR, southern Chad|
The Adamawa languages are a putative family of 80–90 languages scattered across the Adamawa Plateau in central Africa, in Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Chad, spoken altogether by only one and a half million people (as of 1996). Joseph Greenberg classified them as one branch of the Adamawa–Ubangi family of Niger–Congo languages. They are among the least studied languages in Africa, and include many endangered languages; by far the largest is Mumuye, with 400,000 speakers. A couple of unclassified languages—notably Laal and Jalaa—are found along the fringes of the Adamawa area.
Greenberg postulated the group as part of Adamawa–Ubangian (then called Adamawa–Eastern), and divided them into 14 numbered groups. Group G3, Daka (or Dakoid), is now known to be a branch of Benue–Congo. The relationships of the other branches has undergone considerable revision. Boyd (1989) added the Day language and classified them as follows:
- Leko–Nimbari (or Chamba–Mumuye)
- Nyimwom (or Kam: G8)
The Fali languages (G11) were excluded.
Kleinewillinghöfer (1996) modified Waja–Jen by splitting Bikwin–Jen into two branches and moving Baa up as a primary branch of Adamawa. He was agnostic about the inclusion of Fali.
Joseph Greenberg's 14 numbered Adamawa groups can be summarised as:
Güldemann (2018) recognises 14 coherent Adamawa "genealogical units", but is agnostic about their positions within Niger-Congo.
- Maya (Yendangic)
- Kebi-Benue (Mbumic)
- Baa = Kwa
- Nyingwom = Kam
Kleinewillinghöfer (2019), in the Adamawa Languages Project website, recognises the following 17 groups as Adamawa languages.
- Tula-Waja (Waja): G1
- Bikwin-Jen (Burak, Jen): G9
- Kam (Nyiŋɔm, Nyiwom, Nyingwom): G8
- Longuda (Nʋngʋra cluster): G10
- Baa (Kwa)
- Mumuye: G5
- Yandang (Yendang): G5
- Samba-Duru (Chamba-Leko, Leko, Duru, Sama-Duru, Samba Leeko): G2, G4
- Ɓəna-Mboi (Yungur): G7
- Kebi-Benue (Mbum): G6
- Kim: G14
- Bua: G13
- Nimbari (Baari, Bari): G12 [extinct]
- Duli - Gewe (Gey, Gueve) [extinct]
- ? Fali: G11
- ? Chamba-Daka (Daka): G3
More recently, Roger Blench (2012) has posited that the Adamawa languages are a geographic grouping, not a language family, and has broken up its various branches in his proposal of the Savannas family. He retained Boyd and Kleinewillinghöfer's Leko–Nimbari and Mbum–Day families, but gave them no special connection to each other. He removed Waja from the Waja–Jen branch and reassigned it with Kam isolate; the placement of Baa is not clear. Fali is excluded from Savannas altogether. Blench also suggests that some of the western Adamawa languages are in fact closer to the Gur languages.
Geographically, the Adamawa languages lie near the location of the postulated Niger–Congo – Central Sudanic contact that may have given rise to the Atlantic–Congo family, and so may represent the central radiation of that family.
Unclassified Adamawa languages
It has been speculated that the unclassified Laal language of Chad may be Adamawa; the Jalaa language of Nigeria is probably not Adamawa, but shows heavy Adamawa influence. However, both are generally now considered to be language isolates.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Adamawa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Kleinewillinghöfer, Ulrich. 1996. Die nordwestlichen Adamawa-Sprachen - Eine Übersicht. In: Seibert, Uwe (ed). Afrikanische Sprachen zwischen Gestern und Morgen. Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blätter, 8: 80-103.
- Güldemann, Tom (2018). "Historical linguistics and genealogical language classification in Africa". In Güldemann, Tom (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of Africa. The World of Linguistics series. 11. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 58–444. doi:10.1515/9783110421668-002. ISBN 978-3-11-042606-9.
- Kleinewillinghöfer, Ulrich. 2019. Adamawa Language Groups. Adamawa Languages Project.
- Tula-Waja comparative wordlist (Swadesh 100)
- Tula-Waja pronouns and numbers
- Bikwin-Jen Comparative wordlist (Swadesh 100)
- Bikwin-Jen Pronouns and Numbers 1-10
- Kleinewillinghöfer, Ulrich. 2015. Some notes on Nyiŋɔm (aka Nyingwom or Kam).
- Longuda ~ Nʋngʋra wordlist (Swadesh 100)
- Longuda Pronouns and Numbers
- Baa Wordlist (Swadesh 100)
- Baa pronouns and numbers
- Blench, Roger. 2009. The Maya (Yendang) languages.
- Gimme-Vere-Doyayo wordlists
- Vere wordlists
- Ɓəna-Mboi comparative wordlist (Swadesh 100)
- Ɓəna-Mboi pronouns and numbers
- Evidence of noun classes in languages of the Yungur group
- Blench, Roger. 2012. Niger-Congo: an alternative view.
- Ayotte, Michael and Charlene Ayotte. 2002. Sociolinguistic language survey of Dama, Mono, Pam, Ndai and Oblo. SIL International.
- Adamawa Language Projects (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
- AdaGram (CNRS-INALCO). Exploring Nigeria’s linguistic wealth: grammatical analysis and linguistic documentation of the Adamawa languages.
- List of Adamawa languages – Blench
- Tula-Wiyaa languages – Blench
- Leeko group – Blench
- The Perema (Wom) language of northeastern Nigeria: classification, phonology and noun morphology (PDF) by Roger M. Blench, 2000. Mallam Dendo, Cambridge.
- A rapid appraisal survey of Gbete (PDF) by Jason Diller & Kari Jordan-Diller, 2002. SIL Electronic Survey Reports SILESR 2002-050.
- A sociolinguistic survey of the Mambay language of Chad and Cameroon (PDF) by Cameron Hamm, 2002. SIL Electronic Survey Reports SILESR 2002-039.
- Rapid appraisal and lexicostatistical analysis surveys of Dama, Mono, Pam, Ndai and Oblo (PDF) by Michael & Charlene Ayotte, 2002. SIL Electronic Survey Reports SILESR 2002-048.
- Karang – SIL-Cameroon
- SIL-Cameroon bibliography
- Vocabulaires comparés des instruments aratoires dans le Nord-Cameroun, Tourneaux