platinum dioxide, platinic oxide
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||227.08 g/mol|
|Melting point||450 °C (842 °F; 723 K)|
|Solubility||insoluble in alcohol, acid, aqua regia
soluble in caustic potash solution
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Adams's catalyst, also known as platinum dioxide, is usually represented as platinum(IV) oxide hydrate, PtO2•H2O. It is a catalyst for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis in organic synthesis. This dark brown powder is commercially available. The oxide itself is not an active catalyst, but it becomes active after exposure to hydrogen whereupon it converts to platinum black, which is responsible for reactions.
Adams's catalyst is prepared from chloroplatinic acid H2PtCl6 or ammonium chloroplatinate, (NH4)2PtCl6, by fusion with sodium nitrate. The first published preparation was reported by V. Voorhees and Roger Adams. The procedure involves first preparing a platinum nitrate which is then heated to expel nitrogen oxides.
- H2PtCl6 + 6 NaNO3 → Pt(NO3)4 + 6 NaCl (aq) + 2 HNO3
- Pt(NO3)4 → PtO2 + 4 NO2 + O2
The resulting brown cake is washed with water to free it from nitrates. The catalyst can either be used as is or dried and stored in a desiccator for later use. Platinum can be recovered from spent catalyst by conversion to ammonium chloroplatinate using aqua regia followed by ammonia.
Adams's catalyst is used for many applications. It has shown to be valuable for hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions. During the reaction, platinum metal (platinum black) is formed which has been cited to be the active catalyst. Hydrogenation occurs with syn stereochemistry when used on an alkyne resulting in a cis-alkene. Some of the most important transformations include the hydrogenation of ketones to alcohols or ethers (the latter product forming in the presence of alcohols and acids) and the reduction of nitro compounds to amines. However, reductions of alkenes can be performed with Adam's catalyst in the presence of nitro groups without reducing the nitro group. When reducing nitro compounds to amines, platinum catalysts are preferred over palladium catalysts to minimize hydrogenolysis. The catalyst is also used for the hydrogenolysis of phenyl phosphate esters, a reaction that does not occur with palladium catalysts. The pH of the solvent significantly affects the reaction course, and reactions of the catalyst are often enhanced by conducting the reduction in neat acetic acid, or solutions of acetic acid in other solvents.
Prior to the development of Adams's catalyst, organic reductions were carried out using colloidal platinum or platinum black. The colloidal catalysts were more active but posed difficulties in isolating reaction products. This led to more widespread use of platinum black. In Adams's own words:
"...Several of the problems I assigned my students involved catalytic reduction. For this purpose we were using as a catalyst platinum black made by the generally accepted best method known at the time. The students had much trouble with the catalyst they obtained in that frequently it proved to be inactive even though prepared by the same detailed procedure which resulted occasionally in an active product. I therefore initiated a research to find conditions for preparing this catalyst with uniform activity."
Little precaution is necessary with the oxide but, after exposure to H2, the resulting platinum black can be pyrophoric. Therefore, it should not be allowed to dry and all exposure to oxygen should be minimized.
- Nishimura, Shigeo (2001). Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation for Organic Synthesis (1st ed.). Newyork: Wiley-Interscience. pp. 30, 32, 64–137, 170–225, 315–386, & 572–663. ISBN 9780471396987.
- Voorhees, V.; Adams, R. (1922). "The Use of the Oxides of Platinum for the Catalytic Reduction of Organic Compounds". J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 44 (6): 1397. doi:10.1021/ja01427a021.
- Adams, Roger; Voorhees, V.; Shriner, R. L. (1928). "Platinum catalyst for reductions". Organic Syntheses. 8: 92. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.008.0092.
- Hunt, LB (October 1962). "The Story of Adams's Catalyst: Platinum Oxide in Catalytic Reductions" (PDF). Platinum Metals Rev. 6 (4): 150–2.
- Scheeren, CW; Domingos, Josiel B.; MacHado, Giovanna; Dupont, Jairton (October 2008). "Hydrogen Reduction of Adams' Catalyst in Ionic Liquids: Formation and Stabilization of Pt(0) Nanoparticles". J. Phys. Chem. C. 112 (42): 16463–9. doi:10.1021/jp804870j.
- Verzele, M.; Acke, M.; Anteunis, M. (1963). "A general synthesis of ethers". Journal of the Chemical Society: 5598–5600. doi:10.1039/JR9630005598.
- Adams, Roger; Cohen, F. L. (1928). "Ethyl p-Aminobenzoate". Organic Syntheses. 8: 66. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.008.0066.
- van Tamelen, Eugene E.; Thiede, Robert J. (1952). "The Synthetic Application and Mechanism of the Nef Reaction". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 74 (10): 2615–2618. doi:10.1021/ja01130a044.