Adamy massacre

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Adamy
Village (no longer existing)
Location of Adamy on the map of interwar Poland (1918–1939) prior to the Nazi-Soviet invasion of 1939 and the UPA ethnic cleansig
Country Poland Second Polish Republic
Voivodeship Tarnopol Voivodeship
County Kamionka Strumiłowa (pl)
Population 688 (circa 1879–1880) [1]
Coordinates 49°58′N 24°38′E / 49.967°N 24.633°E / 49.967; 24.633

Adamy village was burned to the ground during the Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, and no longer exists. It was destroyed by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army aided by the Ukrainian peasants who set ablaze 200 Polish farms and murdered whomever they could find. Adamy used to be located in powiat Kamionka Strumiłowa (county)[2] near Busk in the Tarnopol Voivodeship (woj. tarnopolskie) of the Second Polish Republic before the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939.

The massacre[edit]

According to the eye-witness account of Weronika Szeremeta-Furmaniewicz who lived in Adamy during the Volhynian tragedy and testified at the 1969 trial,[3] the village was attacked several times by the OUN-UPA death squads, although unsuccessfully, because the Polish self-defence unit in Adamy was well armed, including with a crate of grenades left behind by the Polish Army in 1939.[4] The Ukrainian raids were so persistent that eventually, most inhabitants decided to escape west ahead of the Soviet advance, and in March and April 1944 boarded a train under a watchful eye of the German authorities. However, not all villagers left. Several families stayed behind including the family of Feliks Szeremeta.[5]

The final OUN-UPA attack on Adamy took place behind the Soviet-German front, when the Red Army was already stationing in the area. The Adamy village was destroyed by the SB unit of UPA.[5] All 200 houses were set ablaze.[6] Among the attackers led by Dmitry Kupiak (uk) nicknamed "Klei" (meaning "glue") was a local band of Ukrainian peasants including women whose singing could be heard from a distance. The village, already depopulated, burned for a whole day until nighttime. The survivors, hidden in the woods, run to Busk and asked the Russians for help. On the second day, the Soviet NKVD sent three tanks to Adamy but encountered only the smouldering ashes and nothing else. Six bodies of murdered Poles were found, including Franciszka Szeremeta, Maria Święs, Teodor Łucek, Adam Brodziak, Jan Dąbrowski, Antoni Młot and Emilian Łukasiewicz.[4]

War criminal in Canada[edit]

Location of powiat Kamionka Strumiłowa (county) in Tarnopol Voivodeship (woj. tarnopolskie) of the Second Polish Republic with neighbouring administrative centres under attack by the SB units of UPA

The commander of the SB OUN-UPA death squad in charge of the annihilation of Adamy, Dmitry (Dymitr) Kupiak (who operated under the pseudonym Sławko Weslar in the Nazi German Distrikt Galizien), after the war emigrated to Canada, under the name Dmytro Kupyak. His five co-conspirators were tried in October 1969 by the Lviv District Court in Soviet Ukraine and sentenced to 15 years of hard labour.[3] With time – shockingly as it sounds – Kupyak "Klei" published his own memories as a Ukrainian hero in a book called Spohady nerostrilanoho (Memoirs of an Unshot), Toronto 1991, in Ukrainian. Kupyak (born in 1918) died on 13 June 1995 in Toronto. His war crimes' investigation by the Canadian Department of Justice was subsequently terminated. Dymitr Kupiak is the subject of a monograph written by Bronisław Szeremeta, who revealed that "Klei" commanded a death squad of local bandits who engaged in a string of robberies and torture-murder operations targeting ethnic Poles, Polish Jews, as well as ethic Ukrainians in the area between Lwów and Tarnopol, notably in the settlements of Milatyn Nowy and Stary, Busk, Grabowa, Pobużany, Jabłonówka, Kupcze, Nowosiółka, Żeniów, Bogdanówka, Wodaje, Wierzblany, Zabłotne, Czanyż and others. In almost all of the above locations dozens of his victims were tortured, dismembered alive and burnt to death.[5][4][7] A second book featuring Dmytro Kupyak as war criminal wanted in the Soviet Union, was written by Prof. James McKenzie of University of Regina under the title War Criminals in Canada (1995), published by Detselig Enterprises of Calgary.[8][9] Kupyak is celebrated in Ukraine (as Дмитро Куп'як). A school was named after him in Yabluniv, with a memorial plaque put on display.[10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego (Vol. 1). Adamy, inaczej Łany; wś. w pow. Kamionka Strumiłowa, o milę od mka Buska, w par. buskiej, w lesistej okolicy, ludn. 688 dusz, 500 rz. kat. [Catholics] — 180 gr. kat. [Orthodox]. Rozl. więk. posiadłości 2365 (głównie lasu, 2220 m.), mniej. posiadłości 750 (głównie ogrodów 420 m.) B. R. Wikisource.
  2. ^ Dobkiewicz, Andrzej (14 March 2007). "Województwo tarnopolskie II Rzeczypospolitej, powiat Kamionka Strumiłowa". Rzeczpospolita Virtualna. Rzecz-pospolita.com. 
  3. ^ a b Polski serwis historyczny. "Relacja z procesu sądowego (Słowo wstępne)". Polski portal z tematyka Ukrainska dotyczaca okresu wojenego, czasow stalinowskich i przemian na Ukrainie. 
  4. ^ a b c Szeremeta, Bronisław (2005). Watażka, jego zbrodnie, i zakłamane wspomnienia [The Sotnyk, his crimes, and his fabricated memories]. Lamprecht, Jerzy: "Bronisław Szeremeta - Człowiek który przeżył..." (A man who survived...), Wrocław 2000. Written in response to Spohady nerostrilanoho by Dymitr Kupiak (Toronto 1991). Featuring direct link to a Zip file with complete text of book by Szeremeta in Doc format. Chapter III: "Zagłada wsi Adamy". – Dziś wiadomo, że napad na wieś Adamy zorganizował i stał na jego czele Dymitr Kupiak. Był to napad na większą skalę, bo oprócz oddziału SB watażki Kupiaka, uczestniczyły w nim inne oddziały leśne UPA, zorganizowane z mieszkańców sąsiednich ukraińskich wsi. Dzięki temu, że większość rodzin wyjechała a pozostali, prawie wszyscy zdążyli ukryć się w lesie, zginęło „tylko” 6 osób. 
  5. ^ a b c Szeremeta, Bronisław (2010). "DYMITR KUPIAK I JEGO ZBRODNIE" [Dymitr Kupiak and his war crimes] (PDF). Echo Rzeszowa, Miesięcznik Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Rzeszowa. ISSN 1426-0190. Nr 1 (169) Rok XV styczeń 2010. 
  6. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (2000). Genocide and Rescue in Wołyń. McFarland. p. 263. ISBN 0786407735. Source: Soviet publication by Vladimir Molchanov, titled There Shall Be Retribution published in Moscow by Progress Publishers, 1981, p. 191 – via Google Books. 
  7. ^ Szeremeta, Bronisław. "Watażka, jego zbrodnie, i zakłamane wspomnienia (excerpts)". Busk.pl, Nasza Kresowa Atlantyda. Featuring copy of an official letter from the Canadian Department of Justice and names of over 200 people murdered by Kupiak. 
  8. ^ Christopher Guly (18 February 1996). "Book on alleged war criminals creates controversy in Canada". The Ukrainian Weekly, No. 7, Vol. LXIV. 
  9. ^ James E. McKenzie (1995). War criminals in Canada. Detselig Enterprises. ISBN 1550591096. 224 pages, illustrated – via Google Books. 
  10. ^ "Стефанія Куп'як взяла участь у відкритті в Яблунівській школі Буського району меморіальної дошки на честь свого чоловіка Дмитра Куп'яка". Livejournal.com. 6 January 2008. 

References[edit]

  • Tadeusz Piotrowski (2000), Genocide and Rescue in Wołyń: Recollections of the Ukrainian Nationalist Ethnic Cleansing Campaign Against the Poles During World War II. Published by McFarland, ISBN 0786407735.

Coordinates: 49°58′N 24°38′E / 49.967°N 24.633°E / 49.967; 24.633