Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz

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Poster for Fred R. Hamlin's 1902 musical extravaganza, the first major theatrical adaptation of The Wizard of Oz

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a 1900 children's novel written by American author L. Frank Baum. Since its first publication in 1900, it has been adapted many times: for film, television, theatre, books, comics, games, and other media.


Live-Action, English language[edit]

Live-Action, Foreign language[edit]



Many of the television programs cited in this list are not strict adaptions of The Wizard of Oz; rather, they have reinterpreted aspects of the book, such as characters and plot, to create sequels, prequels or side-plots, which are inspired by Baum's original text.

  • The Suite Life on Deck episode "Twister"
  • Back at the Barnyard the last part of the episode "Lights! Camera! Moo!"
  • Kappa Mikey "The Wizard of Ozu"
  • Rainbow Road to Oz was a proposed Walt Disney live-action production. A preview segment aired in 1957 on the Disneyland TV show, featuring Darlene Gillespie as Dorothy, Annette Funicello as Ozma, Bobby Burgess as the Scarecrow, Doreen Tracey as Scraps, the Patchwork Girl, and Jimmie Dodd as the Cowardly Lion.
  • The Land of Oz is the 1960 premiere episode of The Shirley Temple Show, known in previous seasons as Shirley Temple's Storybook, and no relation to the Shirley Temple Theatre which showcased old Temple films. This adaptation of The Marvelous Land of Oz was written by Frank Gabrielson and directed by William Corrigan. William Asher produced. The cast included Shirley Temple (Ozma/Tip), Ben Blue (The Scarecrow), Agnes Moorehead (Mombi), Sterling Holloway (Jack Pumpkinhead), Gil Lamb (The Tin Woodman), Jonathan Winters (Lord Nikidik), Arthur Treacher (Graves the Butler), and Mel Blanc (Voice of the sawhorse).
  • Tales of the Wizard of Oz is a 1961 animated series of short episodes based on the Oz characters from the book.
  • Off to See the Wizard is a 1967 television anthology series which showcased then-recent MGM family films. The Oz characters appeared in animated segments.
  • Return to Oz is a 1964 animated television special sequel-remake of the 1939 film, based on the artistic renderings of the characters in the 1961 animated series.
  • Saturday Night Live, on February 16, 1980, had a sketch called The Incredible Man, a parody of both The Wizard of Oz and the annual TV broadcast of the film that was standard at the time.
  • The Wizard of Oz is a feature-length anime adaptation of the story produced by Toho in 1982 and directed by Fumihiko Takayama, with music by Joe Hisaishi. The English version of the movie stars Aileen Quinn as the voice of Dorothy and Lorne Greene as the Wizard. Original songs are sung by Aileen Quinn in the English version, with lyrics by Sammy Cahn and Allen Byrnes. It was released in the United States before it premiered in Japan. In the U.S., it was released on video and syndicated to local television stations.
  • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, an episodic anime adaptation of four of Baum's Oz books, was created in 1986. It consists of 52 episodes and follows the story of Dorothy and her adventures in Oz with the Tin Woodman, Cowardly Lion, and Scarecrow. It continues on to the story of Ozma and Mombi, and follows the events in other Oz books. In 1987, HBO purchased the rights to the series and edited together key episodes of the series into a series of movies, which aired as a television mini-series. Margot Kidder was the narrator. Production for the English version was done by the Canadian studio Cinar.
  • In the 1987 series Hello Kitty's Furry Tale Theater, The Wizard of Paws is the first part of first episode. The story begins when after a huge tornado, Hello Dorothy (Hello Kitty) gets whisked away from her home of Catfish to The Land of Paws. Upon arrival, she is welcomed by the Tin Penguin (Tuxedo J Orville Sam), The Scarecrow (Chip), the Cowardly Rabbit (My Melody) and the Munchkits. They thank Hello Dorothy, as the Wicked Witch (Catnip) was about to turn them into cat litter. Just as that is said, the Wicked Witch arises from the house as Dorothy picks up the ruby collar. After crushing the Wicked Witch and taking her collar, the witch plans revenge on Hello Dorothy to take back her precious collar. Dorothy then begins her journey back to the land of Catfish with the penguin, scarecrow and rabbit in order to return home along the yellow block road.
  • The Wizard of Oz, an animated series based on the 1939 film, was broadcast on ABC during the 1990–1991 TV season. The cartoon featured Dorothy returning to Oz, reuniting with her four friends, and journeying through the magical realm in an attempt to rescue the Wizard from a resurrected Witch of the West.
  • The Wonderful Galaxy of Oz (Space Oz no Bôken) is a 1990 Japanese anime series involving Dorothy and her friends in a futuristic setting, traveling the "Galaxy of Oz". It was truncated to 76 minutes and dubbed for the American release.
  • The Oz Kids is a 1996 animated series by Disney, Hyperion Pictures and Nelvana featuring the children of the original characters.
  • The Muppets' Wizard of Oz (2005) Starring Ashanti, Queen Latifah and The Muppets. Miss Piggy plays all of the witches, Pepe plays Toto, Kermit plays the Scarecrow, Gonzo plays the Tin Man, and Fozzie plays the Lion.
  • Tim Burton's Lost in Oz is a 2000 unrealized television pilot script written by Trey Callaway with Tim Burton as executive producer. Key scenes were filmed by Michael Katleman.
  • Lost in Oz is a 2002 television pilot directed by Mick Garris but never broadcast. It is a sequel to the 1939 film.
  • The Futurama episode "Anthology of Interest II" is a retelling of the Oz story, shown as a dream of one of the show's characters.
  • The 100th episode of the television comedy-drama show Scrubs, titled "My Way Home" is a homage to the Wizard of Oz.
  • Tin Man is a three-part miniseries released in December 2007 on the Sci-fi Channel by RHI Entertainment and Syfy. The miniseries, directed by Nick Willing and starring Zooey Deschanel, Richard Dreyfuss, Alan Cumming, Raoul Trujillo, Neal McDonough, and Kathleen Robertson, is a re-imagined version of The Wizard of Oz with a heavy science fantasy emphasis. The heroine, D.G., is a descendant of Dorothy Gale. Other humans, called "Slippers" by the people of Oz, have visited Oz since Gale's fateful adventure. The series portrays a future version of Oz, thereby making the mini-series both a sequel and a re-imagining.
  • OzEnders, a 2003 charity special of EastEnders, saw the characters in a spoof remake of The Wizard of Oz. June Brown starred as Dorothy Cotton, Jon Culshaw as Ozzy Osbourne, and Adam Woodyatt as Ian Beale.
  • Witches of Oz is a 2011 television mini-series directed by Leigh Scott, based on the novels The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Ozma of Oz, The Road to Oz, and The Magic of Oz by Baum.
  • An episode of SpongeBob SquarePants shows SpongeBob and Patrick going to see Mr. Magic. As in The Wizard of Oz, Mr. Magic, who was thought to be a giant, magical head, is revealed to be a powerless, little man.
  • In 2012, the Nickelodeon show The Fresh Beat Band did a remake in a one-hour episode called "The Wizard of Song" with Mariana as Dorothy, Kiki as Tin-women, Twist as Scarecrow, and Shout as the Lion.
  • Tom and Jerry and the Wizard of Oz is a Tom and Jerry direct-to-video film, the first to be made for Blu-ray. It first appeared on Cartoon Network on August 13, 2011. It was followed by a sequel, Tom and Jerry: Back to Oz, released February 3, 2016.
  • In an episode of Rugrats, No Place Like Home, Susie dreams of a land like Oz after having her tonsils removed.
  • In an episode of The Wonder Pets In the Land of Oz, The Wonder Pets get caught in a tornado and blown to the magical Land of Oz, and they need help getting home by The Scarecrow, The Tin Man and The Cowardly Lion by going to the Emerald City.
  • An episode of Phineas and Ferb is titled Wizard of Odd. In order to wash their house quickly, Phineas and Ferb build a contraption that spins it around, causing Candace to become so dizzy, she collapses. She soon finds herself in the magical land of Odd where Isabella, Dr. Doofenshmirtz, Jeremy, Buford, and Baljeet are remarkably like the characters from The Wizard of Oz.
  • An episode of Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, "Minnie's The Wizard of Dizz", places Minnie and Pluto in the roles of Dorothy and Toto. Goofy, Mickey, and Donald appear as the Scarecrow, Tin Mouse, and Lion. Clarabelle Cow appears as the good witch, Pete as the bad witch, and Ludwig von Drake as the wizard.
  • The characters Dorothy Gale and The Wicked Witch of the West make appearances in the 2014 episode "Slumber Party" from the ninth season of the television series Supernatural. Dorothy is revealed to be a hunter of evil and the daughter of L. Frank Baum. The Tin Man, Cowardly Lion, and Scarecrow all make appearances. The season 10 episode "There's No Place Like Home" tells of a war for the Emerald City in which the Wizard has been split into good and dark sides.
  • The Wicked Witch of the West is the main antagonist in the second half of the third season of the ABC/Disney television series Once Upon a Time. In this version, the wicked witch was abandoned by her mother in the woods where a tornado took her to Oz.
  • Emerald City is a television series in development by Universal Television that drew inspiration from L. Frank Baum's original 14 books. Created by Matthew Arnold, in January 2014 it had been officially picked up by NBC for 10 episodes.[2][3] In August 2014, it was reported that NBC would not be proceeding with the series.[4] In April 2015, NBC reversed course and announced that the series would move forward under the leadership of executive producer and writer David Schulner.[5]
  • On December 3, 2015, NBC aired the live television production The Wiz Live! Produced by Craig Zadan and Neil Meron, it is a performance of a new adaptation of the 1975 Broadway musical The Wiz, a soul/R&B reinterpretation of L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The performance aired live from Grumman Studios in Bethpage, New York.[6][7]
  • On June 26, 2015, Amazon Video released an original 24-minute pilot for an animated series, Lost in Oz. On November 2, 2016, it was re-released with additional content under the title Lost in Oz: Extended Adventure.[8] The two seasons series aired on August 4, 2017.
  • Dorothy and the Wizard of Oz (originally Dorothy: Princess of Oz and Dorothy of Oz) is an animated series produced by Warner Bros. Animation. It was released in June 2017 for Boomerang's SVOD service.[9] Clips of the series were revealed in the Boomerang upfront for 2017.[10]
  • In the Victorious episode "April Fools' Blank", the main characters retell the story in the girls' toilet of the Hollywood Arts.
  • In the rebooted TV series Dynasty episode "That Witch", one of the main characters Fallon, gets knocked by an ornament and sees visions of herself as Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz.



There are over 40 canonical Oz books, including 14 by Baum, all of which are considered "official" sequels or prequels to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In addition, the following books use the Oz milieu as settings for their tales:

  • The Wizard of the Emerald City, a 1939 children's novel by Russian writer Alexander Melentyevich Volkov, is a loose translation of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. It was adapted into animated series (1973)[20] and a live action film (1994).[21] It has five sequels by the same author.
  • The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel written by Robert A. Heinlein in 1980. The story uses Oz as one of many alternate universe settings in which events take place, alongside alternate versions of the setting's Earth.
  • A Barnstormer in Oz is a 1982 novel by Philip José Farmer in which a pilot named Hank Stover, who is Dorothy's son, is transported to Oz when his plane becomes lost in a green cloud over Kansas.
  • Was, Geoff Ryman's 1992 parallel novel, imagines three interwoven narratives: one of a real-life "Dorothy Gael" whose experiences are far from wonderful, the second loosely based on Judy Garland's own childhood, and the third story featuring a gay male actor who loves the 1939 film. Was was republished in 2014 by Small Beer Press.
  • Home from Oz (Thomas Nelson, 1994) and The Oz Syndrome (Hillcrest Publishers, 2001) are two books penned by psychologist and professor, Dr.Michael A. O'Donnell which deal with the Oz characters and the MGM musical version from a psychological point of view.
  • Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, a revisionist look at the land and characters of Oz, was published in 1995 by Gregory Maguire. Instead of depicting Dorothy, the novel focuses on Elphaba, the future Wicked Witch of the West. The Independent characterized the novel as "an adult read reflecting on the nature of being an outcast, society's pressures to conform, and the effects of oppression and fascism".[17] Wicked has three sequels: Son of a Witch (2005), A Lion Among Men (2008) and Out of Oz (2011). Wicked was adapted into a 2003 stage musical.
  • Oz Reimagined: New Tales from the Emerald City and Beyond is a 2013 anthology edited by Douglas Cohen & John Joseph Adams published by Amazon Publishing's 47North imprint.[22]
  • Dorothy Must Die is a 2014 young adult book by Danielle Paige and makes up part of the Dorothy Must Die series, which also includes three prequel novellas: No Place Like Oz, The Witch Must Burn and The Wizard Returns, which were published together in March 2015. The next three prequel novellas, Heart of Tin, The Straw King and Ruler of Beasts, were released in a paperback book titled Dorothy Must Die Stories: Volume #2 on June 28, 2016. Two more novellas, Order of the Wicked and Dark Side of the Rainbow, have also been released. A sequel titled The Wicked Will Rise was published on March 30, 2015, following the events of Dorothy Must Die. The third installment of the series titled Yellow Brick War was published on March 15, 2016. The fourth and final book, The End of Oz, was published on March 14, 2017.


The Wizard of Oz (Dell Comics, June 1956). Cover art by Mel Crawford.
  • MGM's Marvelous Wizard of Oz was the first joint publishing venture between DC Comics and Marvel Comics.[23]
  • Marvel Treasury of Oz printed The Marvelous Land of Oz.
  • One of the issues of Classics Illustrated Junior was a condensed version of The Wizard of Oz.
  • The comic book series Oz Squad features an adult Dorothy and her original companions from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a covert operations group protecting Oz from threats both within its borders and from the "real world".
  • The Oz-Wonderland War is a comics story in which the people of Oz fight together with the characters of Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass against the villainous Nome King. It also starred Captain Carrot and the Zoo Crew and was originally intended to be the comic's issues #21–26. The comic, however, was cancelled at #20, and the story was subsequently presented as a mini-series.
  • Dorothy of Oz (Korean:Dorosi) is a manhwa (Korean comic) by Son Hee-joon about an ordinary girl named Mara Shin who winds up in a science-fantasy realm called "Oz". She meets up with this realm's version of the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodsman and the Cowardly Lion, and follows the Yellow Brick Road to find her way home.[24]
  • The comic book Dorothy was launched by Illusive Arts Entertainment in November 2005. Presented in semi-fumetti style using digitally altered photographs, this retelling of Baum's story has been updated to 2005 and features model Catie Fisher as 16-year-old Dorothy Gale, a disaffected youth with dyed hair and piercings who steals her uncle's car and runs away from home; until she encounters a tornado and is knocked unconscious.
  • An erotic re-telling of the story is featured in Lost Girls, a graphic novel by Alan Moore and Melinda Gebbie first published in its entirety in 2006. In this book, an adult Dorothy meets Alice from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Wendy Darling from Peter Pan and the trio recount the stories of their respective works as allegories for their sexual awakenings.
  • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, published by Marvel Comics.
  • Marvel Fairy Tales features a retelling of The Wizard of Oz starring Marvel characters, such as the She-Hulk as Dorothy and the Scarlet Witch as the Wicked Witch of the West.
  • The Steam Engines of Oz is a graphic novel series published by Arcana Studio. It is a "steampunk re-imagining" of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[25]


Music videos with Wizard of Oz themed imagery[edit]

  • The band Blues Traveler's video of the song "Run-Around" has a Wizard of Oz motif, with Blues Traveler playing behind a curtain in a nightclub while a young, "hip" and more "photogenic" group appears to be playing the song.
  • The band The Good Life's video for the song "Heartbroke" has characters from The Wizard of Oz going to a pastry/ice cream shop. There are two versions to this video; a "nice" version and a "mean" version. In the "nice" version the characters pretend to rob the shop but then purchase treats. In the "mean" version they violently rob the store, but the Scarecrow (who was supposed to be the getaway car) does not make it on time due to a flat tire and the would-be robbers get arrested.
  • The Black Eyed Peas music video "Imma Be Rocking That Body" has claimed to be the futuristic version of The Wizard of Oz.[32]
  • Tech N9ne's "He's A Mental Giant" follows the plot to the Wizard of Oz with darker imagery.[33]
  • "Oooh" by De La Soul is a music video that shows the Land of Oooh which is heavily based on the Land of Oz.[34]
  • Sara Evans stars as Dorothy in her music video "Born to Fly".[35]
  • The music video for "La la la" by Naughty Boy featuring Sam Smith shows a young boy traveling around a city meeting characters resembling the Lion, the Tin Man, and the Scarecrow.[36]
  • Nirvana's video for "Heart-Shaped Box" makes extensive use of symbolism, much of which touches on Oz themes and imagery. The bulk of the video takes place in a field of fake poppies. The video also shows a stand of 'spooky' trees, and a pointed hat sinking into a puddle, which bear a resemblance to the 1939 film. Additionally, there are multiple shots of a man suspended in a crucified position from a rough cross and adorned with ravens in a manner more suggestive of a scarecrow.[37][38]
  • The music video for "Heretics and Killers" by Protest The Hero shows the flying monkeys featured in the Wizard of Oz.[39]

Other media[edit]

  • In September 1933, The Wizard of Oz debuted on the NBC radio network, sponsored by General Foods Corporation. It presented dramatizations of episodes from the book.[40]
  • In 1967, The Seekers recorded "Emerald City", with lyrics about a visit there, set to the melody of Beethoven's "Ode to Joy".
  • Todd McFarlane created a sinister toy series called Twisted Land of Oz that portrays all of the characters as more sinister (such as the monster Toto) and adult oriented (BDSM Dorothy).[41]
  • The rock band Aerosmith put some original audios from the 1939 movie and Steven Tyler's voice repeating some quotes of the characters in the song The Farm in the album 'Nine Lives' from 1997.
  • Walt Disney originally wanted to make an animated version of The Wizard Of Oz to serve as the follow-up to Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,[42] but the film rights were bought by Samuel Goldwyn, who originally intended to make it as a standard musical comedy, with Eddie Cantor as his star. However, Goldwyn ended up selling the rights to MGM.
  • The Felice Brothers wrote a song called "Don't Wake the Scarecrow" which features several references to The Wizard of Oz.
  • American McGee's Oz was a darkly, twisted series of figurines based on Baum's original Wizard of Oz characters. This series was released before McFarlane's, and was supposed to help McGee launch a franchise around this interpretation.
  • Stargate SG-1 has several verbal references to The Wizard of Oz, including Colonel Jack O'Neill calling Samantha Carter "Dorothy" when she defeated one of the show's villains.
  • The band Scissor Sisters released a song on their self-titled album called "Return to Oz", referencing the sequel.
  • The John Boorman film Zardoz derives its title from the Wizard of Oz (The WiZARD of OZ).[43]
  • Elton John's album Goodbye Yellow Brick Road is a clear reference to The Wizard of Oz.
  • The Wiyos's album Twist is an original song cycle loosely based on The Wizard of Oz.[44]
  • Ray Bradbury's short story "The Exiles" mentions the Emerald City and its inhabitants existing alongside other famous literary characters and locales on a Martian colony.
  • Big Finish Productions made a full-cast audio drama adaptation of the novel, adapted by Marc Platt.
  • Tom and Jerry: Back to Oz is the sequel to Tom and Jerry and the Wizard of Oz and is a Tom and Jerry direct-to-video film.
  • AIEC Wizard of Oz is a short film parody of The Wizard of Oz starring characters from the Adventure In Epic's Chat web series.


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  3. ^ Hughes, Jason. "Welcome To 'Emerald City'". Huffington Post.
  4. ^ Goldberg, Lesley (22 August 2014). "NBC Drops Limited Series Emerald City". The Live Feed: The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
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Further reading[edit]

Kevin Scott Collier. The Wonderful Animated World of the Wizard of Oz: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly! CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2018. ISBN 172632558X