Adapter pattern

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In software engineering, the adapter pattern is a software design pattern (also known as Wrapper, an alternative naming shared with the Decorator pattern) that allows the interface of an existing class to be used as another interface.[1] It is often used to make existing classes work with others without modifying their source code.

An example is an adapter that converts the interface of a Document Object Model of an XML document into a tree structure that can be displayed.

Definition[edit]

An adapter allows two incompatible interfaces to work together. This is the real-world definition for an adapter. Interfaces may be incompatible, but the inner functionality should suit the need. The Adapter design pattern allows otherwise incompatible classes to work together by converting the interface of one class into an interface expected by the clients.

Usage[edit]

An adapter can be used when the wrapper must respect a particular interface and must support polymorphic behavior. Alternatively, a decorator makes it possible to add or alter behavior of an interface at run-time, and a Facade is used when an easier or simpler interface to an underlying object is desired.[2]

Pattern Intent
Adapter or Wrapper Converts one interface to another so that it matches what the client is expecting
Decorator Dynamically adds responsibility to the interface by wrapping the original code
Delegation Support "composition over inheritance"
Facade Provides a simplified interface

Structure[edit]

There are two adapter patterns:[1]

Object Adapter pattern[edit]

In this adapter pattern, the adapter contains an instance of the class it wraps. In this situation, the adapter makes calls to the instance of the wrapped object.

The object adapter pattern expressed in UML
The object adapter pattern expressed in LePUS3

Class Adapter pattern[edit]

This adapter pattern uses multiple polymorphic interfaces implementing or inheriting both the interface that is expected and the interface that is pre-existing. It is typical for the expected interface to be created as a pure interface class, especially in languages such as Java (before jdk 1.8) that do not support multiple inheritance of classes.[1]

The class adapter pattern expressed in UML.
The class adapter pattern expressed in LePUS3

A further form of runtime Adapter pattern[edit]

There is a further form of runtime adapter pattern as follows:

It is desired for classA to supply classB with some data, let us suppose some String data. A compile time solution is:

classB.setStringData(classA.getStringData());

However, suppose that the format of the string data must be varied. A compile time solution is to use inheritance:

public class Format1ClassA extends ClassA {
   @Override
   public String getStringData() {
      return format(toString());
   }
}

and perhaps create the correctly "formatting" object at runtime by means of the Factory pattern.

A solution using "adapters" proceeds as follows:

(i) Define an intermediary "Provider" interface, and write an implementation of that Provider interface that wraps the source of the data, ClassA in this example, and outputs the data formatted as appropriate:

public interface StringProvider {
    public String getStringData();
}

public class ClassAFormat1 implements StringProvider {
    private ClassA classA = null;

    public ClassAFormat1(final ClassA a) {
        classA = a;
    }

    public String getStringData() {
        return format(classA.getStringData());
    }

    private String format(final String sourceValue) {
        // Manipulate the source string into a format required 
        // by the object needing the source object's data
        return sourceValue.trim();
    }
}

(ii) Write an Adapter class that returns the specific implementation of the Provider:

public class ClassAFormat1Adapter extends Adapter {
   public Object adapt(final Object anObject) {
      return new ClassAFormat1((ClassA) anObject);
   }
}

(iii) Register the Adapter with a global registry, so that the Adapter can be looked up at runtime:

AdapterFactory.getInstance().registerAdapter(ClassA.class, ClassAFormat1Adapter.class, "format1");

(iv) In code, when wishing to transfer data from ClassA to ClassB, write:

Adapter adapter =
    AdapterFactory.getInstance()
        .getAdapterFromTo(ClassA.class, StringProvider.class, "format1");
StringProvider provider = (StringProvider) adapter.adapt(classA);
String string = provider.getStringData();
classB.setStringData(string);

or more concisely:

classB.setStringData(
    ((StringProvider)
            AdapterFactory.getInstance()
                .getAdapterFromTo(ClassA.class, StringProvider.class, "format1")
                .adapt(classA))
        .getStringData());

(v) The advantage can be seen in that, if it is desired to transfer the data in a second format, then look up the different adapter/provider:

Adapter adapter =
    AdapterFactory.getInstance()
        .getAdapterFromTo(ClassA.class, StringProvider.class, "format2");

(vi) And if it is desired to output the data from ClassA as, say, image data in Class C:

Adapter adapter =
    AdapterFactory.getInstance()
        .getAdapterFromTo(ClassA.class, ImageProvider.class, "format2");
ImageProvider provider = (ImageProvider) adapter.adapt(classA);
classC.setImage(provider.getImage());

(vii) In this way, the use of adapters and providers allows multiple "views" by ClassB and ClassC into ClassA without having to alter the class hierarchy. In general, it permits a mechanism for arbitrary data flows between objects that can be retrofitted to an existing object hierarchy.

Implementation of the Adapter pattern[edit]

When implementing the adapter pattern, for clarity one can apply the class name [ClassName]To[Interface]Adapter to the provider implementation, for example DAOToProviderAdapter. It should have a constructor method with an adaptee class variable as a parameter. This parameter will be passed to an instance member of [ClassName]To[Interface]Adapter. When the clientMethod is called, it will have access to the adaptee instance that allows for accessing the required data of the adaptee and performing operations on that data that generates the desired output.

Crystal[edit]

abstract class FormatIphone
  getter connector

  abstract def recharge
  abstract def use_lightning
end

abstract class FormatAndroid
  getter connector

  abstract def recharge
  abstract def use_micro_usb
end

class Iphone < FormatIphone
  def initialize
    @connector = false
  end

  def use_lightning
    @connector = true
    puts "Lightning connected"
  end

  def recharge
    if @connector
      puts "Recharge started"
      puts "Recharge finished"
    else
      puts "Connect Lightning first"
    end
  end
end

class Android < FormatAndroid
  def initialize
    @connector = false
  end

  def use_micro_usb
    @connector = true
    puts "MicroUsb connected"
  end

  def recharge
    if @connector
      puts "Recharge started"
      puts "Recharge finished"
    else
      puts "Connect MicroUsb first"
    end
  end
end

class IphoneAdapter < FormatAndroid
  private getter mobile : FormatIphone

  def initialize(@mobile)
  end

  def recharge
    @mobile.recharge
  end

  def use_micro_usb
    puts "MicroUsb connected"
    @mobile.use_lightning
  end
end

class AndroidRecharger
  def initialize
    phone = Android.new
    phone.use_micro_usb
    phone.recharge
  end
end

class IphoneMicroUsbRecharger
  def initialize
    phone = Iphone.new
    phone_adapter = IphoneAdapter.new(phone)
    phone_adapter.use_micro_usb
    phone_adapter.recharge
  end
end

class IphoneRecharger
  def initialize
    phone = Iphone.new
    phone.use_lightning
    phone.recharge
  end
end

puts "Recharging android with MicroUsb Recharger"
AndroidRecharger.new
puts

puts "Recharging iPhone with MicroUsb using Adapter pattern"
IphoneMicroUsbRecharger.new
puts

puts "Recharging iPhone with iPhone Recharger"
IphoneRecharger.new

Output

Recharging android with MicroUsb Recharger
MicroUsb connected
Recharge started
Recharge finished

Recharging iPhone with MicroUsb using Adapter pattern
MicroUsb connected
Lightning connected
Recharge started
Recharge finished

Recharging iPhone with iPhone Recharger
Lightning connected
Recharge started
Recharge finished

Java[edit]

public class AdapteeToClientAdapter implements Adapter {

    private final Adaptee instance;

    public AdapteeToClientAdapter(final Adaptee instance) {
         this.instance = instance;
    }

    @Override
    public void clientMethod() {
       // call Adaptee's method(s) to implement Client's clientMethod
    }

}

PHP[edit]

// Adapter Pattern example

interface IFormatIPhone
{
    public function recharge();
    public function useLightning();
}

interface IFormatAndroid
{
    public function recharge();
    public function useMicroUsb();
}

// Adaptee
class IPhone implements IFormatIPhone
{
    private $connectorOk = FALSE;

    public function useLightning()
    {
        $this->connectorOk = TRUE;
        echo "Lightning connected -$\n";
    }

    public function recharge()
    {
        if($this->connectorOk)
        {
            echo "Recharge Started\n";
            echo "Recharge 20%\n";
            echo "Recharge 50%\n";
            echo "Recharge 70%\n";
            echo "Recharge Finished\n";
        }
        else
        {
            echo "Connect Lightning first\n";
        }
    }
}

// Adapter
class IPhoneAdapter implements IFormatAndroid
{
    private $mobile;

    public function __construct(IFormatIPhone $mobile)
    {
        $this->mobile = $mobile;
    }

    public function recharge()
    {
        $this->mobile->recharge();
    }

    public function useMicroUsb()
    {
        echo "MicroUsb connected -> ";
        $this->mobile->useLightning();
    }
}

class Android implements IFormatAndroid
{
    private $connectorOk = FALSE;

    public function useMicroUsb()
    {
        $this->connectorOk = TRUE;
        echo "MicroUsb connected ->\n";
    }

    public function recharge()
    {
        if($this->connectorOk)
        {
            echo "Recharge Started\n";
            echo "Recharge 20%\n";
            echo "Recharge 50%\n";
            echo "Recharge 70%\n";
            echo "Recharge Finished\n";
        }
        else
        {
            echo "Connect MicroUsb first\n";
        }
    }
}

// client
class MicroUsbRecharger
{
    private $phone;
    private $phoneAdapter;

    public function __construct()
    {
        echo "---Recharging iPhone with Generic Recharger---\n";
        $this->phone = new IPhone();
        $this->phoneAdapter = new IPhoneAdapter($this->phone);
        $this->phoneAdapter->useMicroUsb();
        $this->phoneAdapter->recharge();
        echo "---iPhone Ready for use---\n\n";
    }
}

$microUsbRecharger = new MicroUsbRecharger();

class IPhoneRecharger
{
    private $phone;

    public function __construct()
    {
        echo "---Recharging iPhone with iPhone Recharger---\n";
        $this->phone = new IPhone();
        $this->phone->useLightning();
        $this->phone->recharge();
        echo "---iPhone Ready for use---\n\n";
    }
}

$iPhoneRecharger = new IPhoneRecharger();

class AndroidRecharger
{
    private $phone;

    public function __construct()
    {
        echo "---Recharging Android Phone with Generic Recharger---\n";
        $this->phone = new Android();
        $this->phone->useMicroUsb();
        $this->phone->recharge();
        echo "---Phone Ready for use---\n\n";
    }
}

$androidRecharger = new AndroidRecharger();

// Result: #quanton81

//---Recharging iPhone with Generic Recharger---
//MicroUsb connected -> Lightning connected -$
//Recharge Started
//Recharge 20%
//Recharge 50%
//Recharge 70%
//Recharge Finished
//---iPhone Ready for use---
//
//---Recharging iPhone with iPhone Recharger---
//Lightning connected -$
//Recharge Started
//Recharge 20%
//Recharge 50%
//Recharge 70%
//Recharge Finished
//---iPhone Ready for use---
//
//---Recharging Android Phone with Generic Recharger---
//MicroUsb connected ->
//Recharge Started
//Recharge 20%
//Recharge 50%
//Recharge 70%
//Recharge Finished
//---Phone Ready for use---

Scala[edit]

implicit def adaptee2Adapter(adaptee: Adaptee): Adapter = {
  new Adapter {
    override def clientMethod: Unit = {
    // call Adaptee's method(s) to implement Client's clientMethod */
    }
  }
}

Python[edit]

"""
Adapter pattern example.
"""
from abc import ABCMeta, abstractmethod


NOT_IMPLEMENTED = "You should implement this."

RECHARGE = ["Recharge started.", "Recharge finished."]

POWER_ADAPTERS = {"Android": "MicroUSB", "iPhone": "Lightning"}

CONNECTED = "{} connected."
CONNECT_FIRST = "Connect {} first."


class RechargeTemplate:
    __metaclass__ = ABCMeta

    @abstractmethod
    def recharge(self):
        raise NotImplementedError(NOT_IMPLEMENTED)


class FormatIPhone(RechargeTemplate):
    @abstractmethod
    def use_lightning(self):
        raise NotImplementedError(NOT_IMPLEMENTED)


class FormatAndroid(RechargeTemplate):
    @abstractmethod
    def use_micro_usb(self):
        raise NotImplementedError(NOT_IMPLEMENTED)


class IPhone(FormatIPhone):
    __name__ = "iPhone"

    def __init__(self):
        self.connector = False

    def use_lightning(self):
        self.connector = True
        print(CONNECTED.format(POWER_ADAPTERS[self.__name__]))

    def recharge(self):
        if self.connector:
            for state in RECHARGE:
                print(state)
        else:
            print(CONNECT_FIRST.format(POWER_ADAPTERS[self.__name__]))


class Android(FormatAndroid):
    __name__ = "Android"

    def __init__(self):
        self.connector = False

    def use_micro_usb(self):
        self.connector = True
        print(CONNECTED.format(POWER_ADAPTERS[self.__name__]))

    def recharge(self):
        if self.connector:
            for state in RECHARGE:
                print(state)
        else:
            print(CONNECT_FIRST.format(POWER_ADAPTERS[self.__name__]))


class IPhoneAdapter(FormatAndroid):
    def __init__(self, mobile):
        self.mobile = mobile

    def recharge(self):
        self.mobile.recharge()

    def use_micro_usb(self):
        print(CONNECTED.format(POWER_ADAPTERS["Android"]))
        self.mobile.use_lightning()


class AndroidRecharger(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.phone = Android()
        self.phone.use_micro_usb()
        self.phone.recharge()


class IPhoneMicroUSBRecharger(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.phone = IPhone()
        self.phone_adapter = IPhoneAdapter(self.phone)
        self.phone_adapter.use_micro_usb()
        self.phone_adapter.recharge()


class IPhoneRecharger(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.phone = IPhone()
        self.phone.use_lightning()
        self.phone.recharge()


print("Recharging Android with MicroUSB recharger.")
AndroidRecharger()
print()

print("Recharging iPhone with MicroUSB using adapter pattern.")
IPhoneMicroUSBRecharger()
print()

print("Recharging iPhone with iPhone recharger.")
IPhoneRecharger()

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Freeman, Eric; Freeman, Elisabeth; Kathy, Sierra; Bates, Bert (2004). "Head First Design Patterns" (paperback). O'Reilly Media: 244. ISBN 978-0-596-00712-6. OCLC 809772256. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  2. ^ Freeman, Eric; Freeman, Elisabeth; Sierra, Kathy; Bates, Bert (2004). Hendrickson, Mike; Loukides, Mike, eds. "Head First Design Patterns" (paperback). 1. O'Reilly: 243, 252, 258, 260. ISBN 978-0-596-00712-6. Retrieved 2012-07-02.