Adaptive autonomy

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Adaptive autonomy refers to a suggestion for the definition of the notation 'autonomy' in mobile robotics.[1]

Human-automation interaction[edit]

The extremist idea of "eliminate the human from the field" rendered the ironies of automation,[2] to the extent that the researchers in the related fields shifted the paradigm to the idea of "best-fit autonomy for the computers", in order to provide more humane automation solutions.

One of the first human-machine function-allocation methods was presented by P. M. Fitts in 1951, which was used in automation systems design.[3] Nevertheless, the function allocation concept remains problematic after half a century, and the basic validity of formal function allocation methods has been challenged repeatedly.[4][5][6][7]


The peripheral situations affect the performance of cybernetic systems; therefore, though one-shot human-centered automation (HCA) designs might provide better results than the systems designed based on the "automate it as possible" philosophy; however, these designs fail to maintain the advantages of the HCA designs, when the peripheral situations change.[8][9]

Consequently, the automation solutions should be smart enough to adapt the level of automation (LOA) to the changes in peripheral situations. This concept is known as adaptive automation [10] or adjustable autonomy;[11] however, the term "adaptive autonomy" (AA)[12][13][14] seems more appropriate, to prevent the confusion with the phrases like adaptive control and adaptive automation in systems control terminology.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Glotzbach, T. (2004). "Adaptive autonomy: a suggestion for the definition of the notation 'autonomy' in mobile robotics". Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, 2004. 2. pp. 922–927. doi:10.1109/CCA.2004.1387487. ISBN 0-7803-8633-7.
  2. ^ L. Bainbridge, “Ironies of automation”, Automatica, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 775-779, 1983.
  3. ^ P. M. Fitts, "Some basic questions in designing an air-navigation and air-traffic control system", In N. Moray (Ed.), Ergonomics major writings (Vol. 4, pp. 367–383). London: Taylor & Francis., Reprinted from Human engineering for an effective air navigation and traffic control system, National Research Council, pp. 5–11, 1951.
  4. ^ N. Jordan, "Allocation of functions between man and machines in automated systems", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 55-59, 1963.
  5. ^ R. B. Fuld, "The fiction of function allocation", Ergonomics in Design, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 20-24, 1993.
  6. ^ T. B. Sheridan, "Function allocation: algorithm, alchemy or apostasy?", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 203-216, 2000.
  7. ^ R. B. Fuld, "The fiction of function allocation, revisited", International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 217-233, 2000.
  8. ^ A. Fereidunian, C. Lucas, H. Lesani, M. Lehtonen, M. Nordman, 2007. "Challenges in implementation of the human-automation interaction models", In Proc. of the MED'07 (IEEE), Athens, Greece, June 2007.
  9. ^ A. Fereidunian, M. Lehtonen, H. Lesani, C. Lucas, M. Nordman, 2007. "Adaptive autonomy: smart cooperative cybernetic systems for more humane automation solutions", In Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. of SMC07, Montreal, Canada.
  10. ^ R. Parasuraman, T.B. Sheridan, C.D. Wickens, 2000. “A Model for Types and Levels of Human Interaction with Automation”, IEEE Trans. on SMC– Part A, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 286-297.
  11. ^ J.M. Bradshaw, et al., 2002. “Adjustable Autonomy and Human-Agent Teamwork in Practice: An Interim Report on Space Applications”, Chapter 0, in the IEEE Computer Society Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) .
  12. ^ A. Fereidunian, H. Lesani, C. Lucas, M. Lehtonen, 2008. "A Framework for Implementation of Adaptive Autonomy for Intelligent Electronic Devices", Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 20, pp.: 3721-3726
  13. ^ A. Fereidunian, M.A. Zamani, H. Lesani, C. Lucas, M. Lehtonen, 2009. "An Expert System Realization of Adaptive Autonomy in Electric Utility Management Automation", Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp.: 1524-1530
  14. ^ reference number 4.