Drug addiction recovery groups
Drug addiction recovery groups are voluntary associations of people who share a common desire to overcome drug addiction. Different groups use different methods, ranging from completely secular to explicitly spiritual. Some programs may advocate a reduction in the use of illegal drugs rather than outright abstention, although this is typically not a sustainable treatment plan in the long term. One survey of members found active involvement in any addiction recovery group correlates with higher chances of maintaining sobriety. The survey found group participation increased when the individual members' beliefs matched those of their primary support group (often people will be members of multiple addiction recovery groups). Analysis of the survey results found a significant positive correlation between the religiosity of members and their participation in twelve-step addiction recovery groups and SMART Recovery, although the correlation factor was three times smaller for SMART Recovery than for the twelve-step addiction recovery groups. Religiosity was inversely related to participation in Secular Organizations for Sobriety.
A survey of a cross-sectional sample of clinicians working in outpatient facilities (selected from the SAMHSA On-line Treatment Facility Locator) found that clinicians only referring clients to twelve-step groups for treatment were more likely than those referring their clients to twelve-step groups and "twelve-step alternatives" to believe less strongly in the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and psychodynamic-oriented therapy, and were likely to be unfamiliar with twelve-step alternatives. A logistic regression of clinician's knowledge and awareness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy effectiveness and preference for the twelve-step model was correlated with referring exclusively to twelve-step groups.
Drug addiction recovery groups take the form of twelve-step programs and non-twelve-step programs.
Twelve-step recovery groups
The twelve-step program many groups follow are laid out in a twelve-step process. Participants attend meetings and are able to make new connections with other members who are striving towards a similar goal. If a person is unable to attend a meeting face-to-face, many of the groups have meetings by phone or online as another option. Each group has its own textbook, workbooks or both, which provide information about their program of recovery and instruction on how to work the steps. Often, free literature is available for anyone who asks for it at a meeting. This provides potential new members or family members with relevant information about both the addiction and that specific groups' version of the twelve-step process of recovery. New members are invited to work with another member who has already been through the twelve-steps at least once. That person serves as a guide to the new member, answers questions and provides feedback as the new member goes through the steps. These groups are spiritually based and encourage a belief in a power greater than the member. Most do not have one specific conception of what that means and allow the member to decide what spirituality means to them as it applies to their recovery. The groups emphasize living on a spiritual yet not necessarily religious basis. Groups typically advocate for complete abstinence, usually from all drugs including alcohol. This is because of the potential for cross-addiction, the tendency to trade one addiction for another.
The following is a list of twelve-step drug addiction recovery groups. Most deal with substances such as drugs and alcohol rather than food or certain other behavioral addictions like sex or gambling.
- Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) - This group gave birth to the twelve-step program of recovery. Meetings are focused on alcoholism only and advocate complete abstinence. Meetings are held all over the world.
- Cocaine Anonymous (CA) - This group is focused on cessation of cocaine and all other mind-altering substances. The program advocates complete abstinence from all mind-altering substances in order to recover from the disease of addiction. Meetings are held all over the world.
- Heroin Anonymous (HA) - This group is focused on abstinence from heroin along with all other drugs including alcohol. Meetings are held in England and the United States.
- Crystal Meth Anonymous (CMA) - This group focuses on abstinence from crystal meth although it does recognize the potential for cross-addiction, the tendency for an addict to substitute one addiction for another. Meetings are currently available in eight countries.
- Marijuana Anonymous (MA) - This group focuses of recovery from marijuana addiction. Groups meet in eleven countries.
- Nicotine Anonymous (NicA) - This group is for those desiring to stop the use of nicotine in all forms. Groups are available in many countries.
- Narcotics Anonymous (NA) - This group has meetings in 139 countries and focuses on recovery from the use of all drugs and alcohol. The group makes no distinction between any mood or mind altering substance and encourages members to look for similarities the common problem they all share, rather than focusing on the differences.
- Pills Anonymous (PA) - This group is focused on addiction to pills and all other mind-altering substances. Groups are available in seven countries.
- Celebrate Recovery (CR) - Celebrate recovery is a recovery program for any life problem, including addiction to drugs and alcohol. The other groups allow for the new members to decide on what a higher power means to them. In celebrate recovery, the group recognizes Jesus Christ as their higher power. Their groups are located in the United States.
- Pagans in Recovery (PIR) - Pagans in recovery has adapted the twelve step program of recovery into language that is not overtly Christian as it was originally written, so that those with other belief systems can more comfortably work the program. They have their own literature but do not currently have an official site for meeting availability.
Non-twelve-step recovery groups
These groups do not follow the twelve-step recovery method, although their members may also attend twelve-step meeting also.
- Recovery Dharma (Buddhist)
- Association of Recovering Motorcyclists (ARM) - The association of recovering motorcyclists is a brotherhood of men recovering from alcohol and/or drug addiction. They support one another in remaining abstinent from drugs and alcohol while continuing to ride motorcycles together regularly. It is an international organization and more information about membership can be found here
- Recovering Women Riders (RWR) - Recovering women riders is a sisterhood of recovering women motorcyclists. Affiliated with the association of recovering motorcyclists, they also seek to support one another in remaining abstinent from drugs and alcohol while continuing to enjoy the lifestyle of riding bikes together. Their international website and information about membership can be found here.
- LifeRing Secular Recovery (LSR)
- Moderation Management (MM)
- Narconon (Church of Scientology)
- Refuge Recovery (RR)
- Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS)
- SMART Recovery
- Women for Sobriety (WFS)
- List of twelve-step groups
- Rational Recovery
- Self-help groups for mental health
- Twelve-step program
- Sober living houses
- Atkins, R.; Hawdon, JE (2007). "Religiosity and participation in mutual-aid support groups for addictions". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 33 (3): 321–331. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2007.07.001. PMC 2095128. PMID 17889302.
- Fenster, Judy (July 2006). "Characteristics of clinicians likely to refer clients to 12-Step programs versus a diversity of post-treatment options". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 83 (3): 238–246. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.11.017. PMID 16376025.
- Staff, Editorial. "Exploring Cross Addiction". American Addiction Centers. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- "Cocaine Anonymous World Services …And All Other Mind-Altering Substances". ca.org. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- "Heroin Anonymous World Services | About". Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- "Home Page". Marijuana Anonymous World Services. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- Buddie, A. M. (2004). "Alternatives to Twelve-Step Programs". Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice. 4 (3): 61–70. doi:10.1300/J158v04n03_04. S2CID 143242280.
- Chappel, J. N.; DuPont, R. L. (June 1999). "Twelve-step and mutual-help programs for addictive disorders". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 22 (2): 425–446. doi:10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70085-X. PMID 10385942.
- Dermatis, H.; Guschwan, M. T.; Galanter, M.; Bunt, G. (2004). "Orientation Toward Spirituality and Self-Help Approaches in the Therapeutic Community". Journal of Addictive Diseases. 23 (1): 39–54. doi:10.1300/J069v23n01_04. PMID 15077839. S2CID 21137589.
- Galanter, M. (Jul–Aug 2006). "Spirituality and Addiction: A Research and Clinical Perspective". The American Journal on Addictions. 15 (4): 286–292. doi:10.1080/10550490600754325. PMID 16867923.
- Hart, K. E. (1999). "A spiritual interpretation of the 12-steps of Alcoholics Anonymous: From resentment to forgiveness to love". Journal of Ministry in Addiction & Recovery. 6 (2): 25–39. doi:10.1300/J048v06n02_03.
- Humphreys, K.; Koman, Jeremy; Sow, Mamadou Bhoye (December 1997). "Self-help/mutual aid organizations: The view from Mars". Substance Use & Misuse. 32 (14): 2105–2109. doi:10.3109/10826089709035622. PMID 9440155.
- Laudet, A. B. (December 2003). "Attitudes and beliefs about 12-step groups among addiction treatment clients and clinicians: Toward identifying obstacles to participation". Substance Use & Misuse. 38 (14): 2017–2047. doi:10.1081/JA-120025124. PMC 1855195. PMID 14677780.
- Laudet, A. B.; White, W. L. (2005). "An Exploratory Investigation of the Association Between Clinicians' Attitudes Toward Twelve-Step Groups and Referral Rates". Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 23 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1300/J020v23n01_04. PMC 1343517. PMID 16467900.
- Larkin, M.; Griffiths, M. D. (June 2002). "Experiences of addiction and recovery: The case for subjective accounts". Addiction Research & Theory. 10 (3): 281–312. doi:10.1080/16066350211866. S2CID 144293572.
- Melnick, G.; Wexler, H. K.; Chaple, M.; Banks, S. (October 2006). "The contribution of consensus within staff and client groups as well as concordance between staff and clients to treatment engagement". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 31 (3): 277–285. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2006.05.002. PMID 16996390.
- Magura, S. (2007). "The relationship between substance user treatment and 12-step fellowships: Current knowledge and research questions". Substance Use & Misuse. 42 (2–3): 343–360. doi:10.1080/10826080601142071. PMID 17558934. S2CID 34425116.
- Mankowski, E. S.; Humphreys, K.; Moos, R. H. (August 2001). "Individual and contextual predictors of involvement in twelve-step self-help groups after substance abuse treatment". American Journal of Community Psychology. 29 (4): 537–563. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.464.8168. doi:10.1023/A:1010469900892. PMID 11554152. S2CID 37185838.
- Morgenstern, J.; Kahler, C. W.; Frey, R. M.; Labouvie, E. (1996). "Modeling therapeutic response to 12-step treatment: Optimal responders, nonresponders, and partial responders". Journal of Substance Abuse. 8 (1): 45–59. doi:10.1016/S0899-3289(96)90079-6. PMID 8743768.
- Nosa Okundaye, J.; Smith, P.; Lawrence-Webb, C. (2001). "Incorporating spirituality and the strengths perspective into social practice with addicted individuals". Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. 1 (1): 65–82. doi:10.1300/J160v01n01_06. S2CID 144574657.
- Straussner, S. L. A.; Spiegel, B. R. (September 1996). "An analysis of 12-step programs for substance abusers from a developmental perspective". Clinical Social Work Journal. 24 (3): 299–309. doi:10.1007/BF02190557. S2CID 143959672.
- Winzelberg, A.; Humphreys, K. (Oct 1999). "Should patients' religiosity influence clinicians' referral to 12-step self-help groups? Evidence from a study of 3,018 male substance abuse patients". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 67 (5): 790–794. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.67.5.790. PMID 10535246.