Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway

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Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway
Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway.svg
Schematic diagram of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway.
Overview
TypeHeavy rail
SystemEthiopian Railways
Djiboutian Railways
StatusOperational
LocaleEthiopia, Djibouti
TerminiSebeta, Ethiopia
Port of Doraleh, Djibouti
Stations21 (15 for passengers)
Operation
Opened1 January 2018
OwnerEthiopia, Djibouti
Operator(s)Ethio-Djibouti Standard Gauge Rail Transport S.C. (from 2024)
China Railway Group Ltd. (until 2023)
China Civil Engineering Construction Corp. (until 2023)
Rolling stock41 locomotives, 1,130 coaches/wagons
Events
Inauguration5 October 2016 (5 October 2016) (Ethiopia)
10 January 2017 (10 January 2017) (Djibouti)
Commercial operation1 January 2018 (1 January 2018)
Technical
Line length759 km (472 mi)
Number of trackssingle-/double- track
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Loading gauge5300 mm
Minimum radius800–1,200 m (2,600–3,900 ft)
ElectrificationOverhead line 25 kV AC / 50 Hz
Operating speed120 km/h (75 mph) (passenger);
80 km/h (50 mph) (freight)
Signallingautomatic block & ETCS-2
Highest elevation2,293 m (7,523 ft)
Maximum incline1.85%[1]

The Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway is a new standard gauge international railway that serves as the backbone of the new Ethiopian National Railway Network. The railway was inaugurated by Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn on January 1, 2018. It provides landlocked Ethiopia with access to the sea, linking Ethiopia's capital of Addis Ababa with Djibouti and its Port of Doraleh.[2] More than 95% of Ethiopia's trade passes through Djibouti, accounting for 70% of the activity at the Port of Djibouti.[3][4]

The total railway capacity is 24.9 million tonnes of freight annually, with 6 million tonnes annually expected in 2023.[5][6] These plans are accompanied by construction works at the Port of Doraleh to expand the cargo handling capacity from 6 to 14 million tonnes annually with the aim of reaching 10 million tonnes of cargo by 2022.[7][8]

Railway[edit]

Operator[edit]

The railway line is owned by the Djiboutian government (in Djibouti) and by the Ethiopian government (in Ethiopia). In Ethiopia, the state-owned Ethiopian Railway Corporation represents the owner of the railway.

In 2017, a new company was set up to administer, to operate and to service the new standard gauge Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway, the Ethio-Djibouti Standard Gauge Rail Transport S.C., a bi-national public company headquartered in Addis Ababa. It is owned by the governments of Ethiopia (75% share) and Djibouti (25% share). Ethiopia got the CEO post, represented through the Ethiopian Minister of Transport. The new company is expected to take over all railway operations at the beginning of 2024. Before 2024, the company's role is an administrative one.[9]

Until the end of 2023, all operations on the new railway will jointly be undertaken by two Chinese companies, the Chinese state-owned China Railway Group Ltd. (CREC) and the privately-owned China Civil Engineering Construction Corp. (CCECC). The six years till the end of 2023 will be used not only to operate the railway by the two joint operators (including maintenance and repairs), but also to train local employers in order to prepare the takeover of all railway operations by the Ethio-Djibouti Standard Gauge Rail Transport S.C. in 2024. To support the operations and to prepare own staff, the Ethiopian Railway Corporation founded the African Railway Academy in Bishoftu to graduate rail engineers.[9]

Route[edit]

The Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway runs roughly parallel to the old metre-gauge Ethio–Djibouti Railway for most of its length.[10] However, the standard-gauge railway is built on a new, straighter right-of-way that allows for much higher speeds. New stations have been built outside city centres, and most of the old railway stations have been decommissioned.[11][12] There are 68 viaducts and bridges,[citation needed] comprising 3% of the railway's total length.[13] There are no tunnels.

The total length of the railway line is 759 km of which 754 km are running between the two terminal stations at Sebeta and the Port of Doraleh. The remaining five kilometers are for shunting operations. A total of 666 km of the railway line is in Ethiopia, while a total of 93 km is in Djibouti.[5] The 115 km section from Sebeta to Adama is the only double-track section of the line, and it also has the highest grades with a net elevation loss of 650 meters. It features several viaducts with lengths of up to 800 meters. The remainder of the railway is single-track, with passing loops distributed evenly along its length.[14]

The railway begins at Sebeta, just outside of Ethiopia's capital of Addis Ababa. The city is served by two stations in the outskirts, at Furi-Labu and Indode. The line then runs southeast to Modjo and Adama, both towns located in the Ethiopian Great Rift Valley. At Modjo, a railway junction exists for the planned Modjo–Hawassa Railway. In addition, at Modjo the railway is connected to the Modjo Dry Port, Ethiopia's most important inland dry port and also Ethiopia's main hub for domestic and international freight services.

At Adama, the railway turns northeast towards Dire Dawa. At Awash, there is a junction with the Awash–Hara Gebeya Railway, which is under construction as of 2018. Directly after Awash station, the line crosses 60 meters above the Awash River canyon over a 155 meter long bridge, the main bridge of the railway.[13] The railway then proceeds to Dire Dawa, where it turns and heads directly for Djibouti. Crossing the Ethiopia-Djibouti border between Dewale and Ali Sabieh, the line reaches the Djibouti passenger terminal at Nagad railway station, near Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport. Freight trains continue the last 12 km to the Port of Doraleh on diesel power.

Stations[edit]

There are 21 dedicated railway stations along the railway, all of them can serve as passing loop stations, as they have three tracks or more (except the Adigala station which has only two tracks). Four of the 21 railway stations are designed as passing loops only, so there is no freight loading / unloading or passenger service. Two of the remaining 17 stations are freight yards only and two others will be for passengers only. The remaining 13 stations can handle both passenger services as well as freight loading / unloading.[5]

The 15 passenger stations usually have a single boarding platform, with a station building attached to it. The platforms are about 200, 300, or 400 meters long. The Awash station, the only one with three platforms, is also located along the railway but also at the junction point with the Awash–Hara Gebeya Railway. The Furi-Labu and Dewale stations have two platforms.[5] All station buildings along the line contain facilities for ticketing and refreshment, and they even have prayer rooms. The architecture of the station buildings (except that of Awash station) is eclectic, featuring traditional Ethiopian elements with some Chinese interpretation.[citation needed]

Specifications[edit]

The Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway, Holhol bridge.

The Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway was based on the Chinese National Railway Class 2 Standard.[15] However, some changes[which?] were made at the request of the Ethiopian Railway Corporation.[citation needed] Ethiopia is not a member of the Northern Corridor Integration Project, which has selected the Chinese Class 1 standard for all of its railways.[13]

The operators of the railway consider an annual freight tonnage that is far below the railway limits. As a rule of thumb, the operators foresee an annual freight tonnage increase of about one million tonne per year, starting at 1–2 million tonnes in the first year of operations.[5]

Although road traffic in Ethiopia drives on the right, trains drive on the left in the double-track sections. This is consistent with Chinese railway practice. The single-track section is equipped with passing loops, each triple-track to allow two trains to wait for the line to clear. Each station also serves as a passing loop.

The railway line is almost fully electrified. Power is transmitted at 230 kV and 130 kV to eight substations. Traction power is supplied at 35.8 km intervals, with 18+1 stations in Ethiopia and three in Djibouti.[17] General electrification ends after the Djibouti–Nagad passenger station. Trains are pulled by diesel locomotives to reach the Port of Doraleh and cargo terminals at inland dry ports. This is necessary to avoid interference between the overhead catenary and loading cranes.

Rolling stock[edit]

The rolling stock is the same as for the entire National Railway Network of Ethiopia.

All the rolling stock had been purchased by Ethiopian Railways Corporation (ERC). All the rolling stock has been transferred to the Ethio-Djibouti Standard Gauge Railway Share Company (EDR) which operates the railway as a share kind contribution by ERC. EDR owns these rolling stocks. EDR is also expected to procure additional rolling stocks to expand its operations. Djibouti did not buy any rolling stock, and even shunting operations at Djibouti's Port of Doraleh will be performed by EDR rolling stock and EDR personnel. Djibouti chose to pay its share on railway construction instead of buying vehicles.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Construction began in 2011 and was largely complete in 2016, but final testing continued through 2017. The line was formally opened for commercial operations on 1 January 2018.[18]

Decline of the metre-gauge railway[edit]

The Addis Ababa–Djibouti railway supersedes the Ethio-Djibouti Railway, a metre-gauge railway that was originally built by the French between 1894 and 1917 which for some time in the 20th century was the only way to reach Ethiopia from the outside world.[10][19] As the Ethio–Djibouti Railway deteriorated in the 1980s from a lack of spare parts and maintenance, Addis Ababa lost railroad access to the sea in 2004. Rail service ran between Dire Dawa and Djibouti City until 2010 and then again from 2013–2014. Since 2014, operation is only possible on 213 km of rehabilitated tracks in Ethiopia between Dire Dawa and the border with Djibouti at Guelile. The connection between the commercial centres of Ethiopia (e.g. Addis Ababa) and the sea ports in Djibouti had become lost.

Construction (2011–2016)[edit]

At that time, Ethiopia initiated an ambitious Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) to develop the country's economy through infrastructure investment. A new electrified standard gauge railway was expected to reduce cargo transit times from three days by road to twelve hours by train, and cargo transport costs to one-third of the cost of road transport.[20] In 2011, the Ethiopian Railway Corporation (ERC) awarded contracts for railway construction from Addis Ababa to the Djibouti border to two Chinese state-owned companies, the China Railway Group (CREC) and the China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation (CRCC).[21]

The 320 kilometres (200 mi) stretch from Sebeta to Mieso was awarded to CREC,[22] and the 339 kilometres (211 mi) section from Mieso to the Djibouti border was awarded to CRCC.[23] In 2012, Djibouti selected CRCC to complete the final 100 km to the port of Djibouti.[24] The total costs of the railway amounted to US$1.873 billion for the Sebeta-Mieso section, US$1.12 billion for the Mieso–Dewele section and US$525 million for the Dewele–Port of Doraleh section.[25]

In 2013, loans totalling US$3 billion were secured from the Exim Bank of China, with US$2.4 billion going to the Ethiopian section of the railway and the balance to be spent in Djibouti.[26] Additional funding was secured from the China Development Bank and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China.[27] 20,000 Ethiopians and 5,000 Djiboutians were hired for construction work.[28] Track-laying was completed on the Mieso–Djibouti segment of the project in June 2015.[29]

In 2015, farmers in Ethiopia had suffered crop failures of between 50% and 90% due to a catastrophic drought, and the port of Djibouti was backed up with ships waiting to unload grain for hungry Ethiopians.[30] Although construction was still in progress on some sections, the completed portion of the railway was put into emergency operation in November 2015 to carry grain to drought-stricken Ethiopia.[31][32]

The officially completed Ethiopian section was formally inaugurated on 5 October 2016 in the new Furi-Labu railway station in Addis Ababa, by the presidents of Ethiopia and Djibouti.[33] On 10 January 2017, the 100 km section of Djibouti side was inaugurated[34][35] in a ceremony held in the new Nagad railway station of Djibouti City[36] by Djibouti's President Ismail Omar Guelleh and Ethiopia’s prime minister Hailemariam Dessalegn,[37] and the director general of the International Union of Railways (UIC), Jean-Pierre Loubinoux.[38]

A survey of East African railway projects by the Uganda government in early 2017 revealed that the actual costs of the Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway were around US $5.2m per km, resulting in total costs of around US $4.5b.[13] This is approximately 30% more than originally planned.

Trial service (2016–2017)[edit]

The two prime contractors, CREC and CRCC, formed a consortium to operate the entire railway for the first 3–5 years, while local personnel are trained.[39][25][40] Despite being inaugurated in October 2016 and January 2017, Djiboutian authorities still considered the railway to be under construction and expected it to become operational not before the end of 2017.[41]

An official trial service began on the railway after inauguration in October 2016.[42] On 9 May 2017, the first thorough stress test was conducted, with more than 30 trains on the line at the same time. Passenger trains ran between Furi-Labu and Dire Dawa, while freight services ran between the Port of Doraleh and the Modjo Dry Port near Mojo railway station.[43] Shortage of electrical power has been blamed for test failures.[44] The railway finally began commercial operations on 1 January 2018.[18]

Railway integration[edit]

The construction of the railway line was an EPC/Turnkey project. However, the accompanying infrastructure was neglected, and the railway was not ready to go into commercial operation at its commissioning.

Main issues[edit]

The railway line was built without access roads, trunk lines, spur lines, branch lines, storage facilities, goods handling facilities or dry ports. It was official policy to build a "cheap railway line first", as the integration work was considered to be "easy and quick".[45] Another official said that railway integration was too complex to consider at the planning stage, as many local authorities would have to coordinate their efforts.[46] As one of the many consequences, most railway stations are far outside the city centers and even outside the towns and cities they are intended to serve. For example, the Dire Dawa train station is located 10 km away from Dire Dawa. Due to a lack of inter-country coordination, the Port of Doraleh in Djibouti, despite being the main cargo terminus for the railway, was not linked to the railway. No spur lines were built to the three different terminals in question, and the infrastructure for handling bulk goods and fuels was totally missing.[44][46]

After the inauguration of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway at the end of 2016, the Ethiopian Railway Corporation (ERC) in Ethiopia found itself with debt equal to one-third of Ethiopia's annual state budget. As a result, there was no additional funding available to complete the surrounding infrastructure necessary to place the railway into commercial operation.[44][47]

Measures to overcome the issues[edit]

State-owned companies other than the ERC stepped in to build and construct the needed infrastructure. Active in particular was the Ethiopian Shipping and Logistics Enterprise (ESL) to build spurs to facilities like dry ports and the dry ports as such. Construction of the Dire Dawa Dry Port with a spur line commenced in late 2017.[45] However, it took 12 months just to negotiate the contract for the dry port construction and the construction works turned out to be much more expensive than originally expected.[45]

The construction of a spur line to Modjo Dry Port started in 2017 and was well underway in May 2017. The Modjo Dry Port railway loading and unloading facilities became partially operational at the end of 2017, but are (2018) still not completed.[48]

The three missing railway facilities at the Port of Doraleh, connections and railway terminals (Djibouti Container Terminal (DCT), Doraleh Multipurpose Port (DMP) and the Horizon Oil Terminal (HDTL)) will "soon" be built through a combined effort of the two governments of Djibouti and Ethiopia.[44][49] In the second half of 2017, construction works started at the Port of Doraleh near the DCT to link this container terminal with the railway.

The Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway project provided some lessons. Two other active major railway projects, the Awash–Hara Gebeya Railway construction project and the Hara Gebeya–Mek'ele Railway construction project were expanded to include supporting infrastructure.[50] To make up for the current lack of railway revenues, new and existing railways could be partially outsourced or sold to private investors.[47][51] To increase utilisation of the railways, any interested railway transportation service provider will be allowed to earn a license to use the existing railway infrastructure.[52]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Gardner, Tom (2018-05-12). "In Ethiopia's bushlands, promised riches of a railway boom turn to dust". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-05-13.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Shimelis Atile (May 2015). "Traction Power Consumption Analysis to Investigate Freight Train Operational Speed In the case of Ethio-Djibouti Railway Corridor" (PDF). Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAiT).
  2. ^ "Ethiopia – Djibouti high speed railway finally completed". CGTN. 17 January 2017.
  3. ^ Meseret, Elias (5 October 2016). "Ethiopia's new coastal rail link runs through restive region". Associated Press.
  4. ^ Maasho, Aaron (17 December 2011). "Ethiopia signs Djibouti railway deal with China". Reuters. Ethiopia and Djibouti's economies are reliant on each other with about 70 percent of all trade through Djibouti's port coming from its land-locked neighbour.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ethiopia-Djibouti Railway Operation and Maintenance Handbook" (docx) (in Chinese). CCECC & CREC JV Project Office. 2016. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
  6. ^ a b "Ethiopia steams ahead with vision for a modern national rail network". Global Construction Review. 17 February 2015.
  7. ^ "Djibouti opens new port as part of $7 bln/year free-trade zone plan". Reuters. 24 May 2017.
  8. ^ "Grand plans for Djibouti" (PDF). Port de Djibouti. April 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  9. ^ a b "What is in store to operate, manage rail transport?". Ethiopian Herald. 17 November 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  10. ^ a b Blas, Javier (27 November 2013). "Chinese investment triggers new era of east African rail building". The Financial Times. This [new] line, whose building started several months ago, runs mostly parallel to the abandoned Imperial Railway Company of Ethiopia track built between 1894 and 1917.
  11. ^ "Ethiopia has a lot riding on its new, Chinese-built railroad to the sea". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  12. ^ Vaughan, Jenny (10 March 2013). "China's Latest Ethiopian Railway Project Shows Their Growing Global Influence". Agence France Presse. But he said that if the old train ceases to operate, it will be a great loss for Ethiopia and for Dire Dawa, the commercial town in northeastern Ethiopia where the main train station and workshops were headquartered. The new station is slated to be built just outside Dire Dawa, a town renowned for its French atmosphere. "Dire Dawa will suffer," said Josef, who is now the director of the French cultural centre in the city. The train station – known locally as "la gare" – and the workshops still stand, unused for years.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Information about Standard Gauge Railway" (PDF). Uganda Ministry of Works, Transportation and Communication. 7 April 2017. Date found at introductory page: http://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1450522/information-about-standard-gauge-railway
  14. ^ "China's CREC to complete section of Ethiopia's key railway project". China Daily USA. Xinhua. 19 May 2015. The Sebeta/Addis Ababa-Mieso railway project covers a total length of 329.145 km. The Ababa-Adama section is a double track with 114.73 km length while the Adama-Mieso is a single track covering 214.145 km.
  15. ^ "首条全套"中国标准"电气化铁路非洲铺轨竣工_新闻中心_专题专栏_走出去_国际业务动态_中国铁建股份有限公司, approximately: The first full set of "China Standard" completed the laying of African railways electrified railway". 中国铁建股份有限公司 (China Railway Construction Co., Ltd.). Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  16. ^ 总裁办公室 (CEO's office). "浙江众合科技股份有限公司 – 众合科技为非洲首条中国标准电气化铁路保驾护航 (Zhejiang Zhonghe Science & Technology Co., Ltd. - Zhonghe Technology Secures China's First Standard Electric Railway in Africa)". Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Ethiopia-Djibouti Railway Line to Start Early 2016". DP World Doraleh. Capital. 4 October 2015. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
  18. ^ a b "Chinese-built Ethiopia-Djibouti railway begins commercial operations". Xinhua. 1 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Briefing Memorandum: The Djibouti-Ethiopia Railway" (PDF). ICA Meeting: Financing Transport for Growth in Africa. 3–4 December 2007. According to the results of the rehabilitation pre-feasibility study, sections of the railway are laid at steep gradients and have curvatures that require modification in order to use upgraded locomotives at full capacity.
  20. ^ "Ethiopia: Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway Officially Completed, Creating High Speed Link Between Djibouti and Ethiopia". Djibouti Ports and Free Zones Authority (Djibouti). 10 January 2017.
  21. ^ "Chinese-built railway helps propel Ethiopia's industrialization drive". 2 October 2016.
  22. ^ "Chinese, Ethiopian firms sign railway project deal". China Daily USA. Xinhua. 26 October 2011. The Ethiopian Railway Corporation and the China Railway Group Limited (CREC) on Tuesday signed an accord that enables the latter to construct railways that runs from Sebeta town, some 25 km away from Addis Ababa up to Mieso town in the east of Addis Ababa. The total distance of the railway project covers some 320 kms [sic], according to the Ethiopian Railway Corporation (ERC).
  23. ^ Berhane, Daniel (18 December 2011). "Second Chinese company signs up for Ethio-Djibouti rail route". Horn Affairs - English. China Civil Engineering Construction Cooperation signed an agreement on Friday for the construction of the second half of the new Ethiopian – Djibouti rail route. ... The cost of the project is estimated about 1.12 Billion USD – about 3.3 million USD per kilometre.
  24. ^ "Contract signed for final section of new Djibouti - Ethiopia railway". Railway Gazette. 16 February 2012. The government has awarded China Railway Construction Corp a contract to build its 100 km section of the new standard gauge railway which will replace the out-of-use metre-gauge line from the coast to Addis Abeba in Ethiopia. Announcing the US $505m contract covering the Djibouti section of the route on February 15, CRCC said work was expected to take 60 months. The contractor will arrange Chinese financial support for the project.
  25. ^ a b Yewondwossen, Muluken (5 September 2016). "Chinese companies nab Djibouti railway project". Capital Ethiopia. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  26. ^ Yewondwossen, Muluken (27 May 2013). "Ethiopia, Djibouti secure $3 bln loan for railway project". Capital Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Railway Corporation (ERC) and the Djibouti government have secured nearly three billion dollars loan from the Chinese Export Import (EXIM) Bank for the construction of the railway project that stretches from Addis Ababa to Djibouti.
  27. ^ Maasho, Aaron (17 December 2011). "Ethiopia signs Djibouti railway deal with China". Reuters. China Railway Group and China Railway Engineering Corporation have won tenders for other sections of the 656-kilometre build. Those companies have brokered loans for Ethiopia from China's EXIM Bank, Development Bank of China and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), Getachew said.
  28. ^ "Ethiopia-Djibouti railway sets new model for China-Africa cooperation". Xinhua. 5 October 2016.
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  32. ^ Harper, Mary (23 November 2015). "Can Ethiopia's railway bring peace to Somalia?". BBC World Service News,. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
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  35. ^ "Ethiopia: Portion of Ethio-Djibouti Railway to Be Inaugurated Tomorrow". 2merkato.com. 9 January 2017.
  36. ^ Vasudevan Sridharan (11 January 2017). "China-built rail network in African heartland inaugurated". International Business Times.
  37. ^ "Djibouti inaugurates railway link to Ethiopia".
  38. ^ David Briginshaw (12 January 2017). "Djibouti inaugurates new line to Addis Ababa". Rail Journal.
  39. ^ Yewondwossen, Muluken (22 December 2016). "Two Chinese firms to overseas Ethio-Djibouti railway". Capital Ethiopia Newspaper. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  40. ^ "From builder to teacher -- China brings railway expertise to Africa". Xinhua. 4 October 2016.
  41. ^ "Grand plans for Djibouti". Port of Djibouti SA / World Port Development. April 2017.
  42. ^ "Ethiopia: Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway to Start Trial Service". www.2merkato.com. 29 September 2016.
  43. ^ "Ethio Djibuti railway commences regular test run". fanabc.com. 9 May 2017. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  44. ^ a b c d "ከ400 በላይ የባቡር ፉርጎዎች ከጅቡቲ ወደብ አለመነሳት መንግስትን ለከፍተኛ ወጪ እየዳረገ ነው, approximately: The Ethiopian Railways Corporation (ERC) said 412 out of 1171 containers were delayed for a long time at the port of Djibouti" (in Amharic). fanabc.com. 22 June 2017. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  45. ^ a b c "Chinese Company Begins Dire Dawa Port Construction". Addis Forune. 28 March 2017.
  46. ^ a b "Absence of trunk lines, operational depot hinders launch of fuel train transport". thereporterethiopia.com. 12 November 2016.
  47. ^ a b "Running out of Steam". threreporterethiopia.com. 28 January 2017.
  48. ^ "The Ethio-Djibouti Rail Way Project-cargo train has made a first trial move from Djibouti port to Modjo dry port". Ethiopian Shipping Lines. 25 May 2017.
  49. ^ "Djibouti's Makeover". Port of Djibouti SA: Interview with Saad Omar Guelleh, General Manager of Port of Djibouti SA. 21 March 2017.
  50. ^ "Gov't to Relocate Kombolcha Dryport". addisfortune.net. 1 April 2017.
  51. ^ "Ethiopia to outsource construction, management of planned railway projects". fanabc.com. 27 March 2017.
  52. ^ "Bill proposes liberalization of rail transport". thereporterethiopia.com. 24 June 2017.