Chain-growth polymerization or chain polymerization is a polymerization technique where unsaturated monomer molecules add onto the active site of a growing polymer chain one at a time. Growth of the polymer occurs only at one (or possibly more) ends. Addition of each monomer unit regenerates the active site.
Polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are common types of plastics made by chain-growth polymerization. They are the primary component of four of the plastics specifically labeled with recycling codes and are used extensively in packaging.
Chain-growth polymerization can be understood with the chemical equation:
This type of polymerization result in high molecular weight polymer being formed at low conversion. This final weight is determined by the rate of propagation compared to the rate of individual chain termination, which includes both chain transfer and chain termination steps. Above a certain ceiling temperature, no polymerization occurs.
Chain-growth polymerization usually has the following steps:
- chain initiation, usually by means of an initiator which starts the chemical process. Typical initiators include any organic compound with a labile group: e.g. azo (-N=N-), disulfide (-S-S-), or peroxide (-O-O-). Two examples are benzoyl peroxide and AIBN.
- chain propagation
- chain transfer, terminates the chain, but the active site is transferred to a new chain. This can occur with the solvent, monomer, or other polymer. This process increases the branching of the resulting polymer.
- chain termination, which occurs either by combination or disproportionation. Termination, in radical polymerization, is when the free radicals combine and is the end of the polymerization process.
The active center can be one of a number of different types:
- free radical in radical polymerization, for example, polystyrene, sometimes seen as packing peanuts, is produced by polymerizing styrene with Benzoyl peroxide as its radical initiator
- carbocation in cationic polymerization, an example is Isobutyl synthetic rubber, initiated by Aluminium chloride ionizing isobutylene
- carbanion in anionic polymerization
- organometallic complex in coordination polymerization.
Under the necessary reaction conditions, an addition polymerization can be considered a living polymerization. This is most often seen with anionic polymerization as it can be easy to perform without termination steps.
Comparison with other polymerization methods
The distinction between step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization was introduced by Paul Flory in 1953, and refers to the difference in reaction mechanisms with step-growth using the functional groups of the monomer compared to the free-radical or ion groups used in chain-growth polymerization.
Chain growth polymerization and addition polymerization (also called polyaddition) are two different concepts. In fact polyurethane polymerizes with addition polymerization (because its polymerization does not produce any small molecules, called "condensate"), but its reaction mechanism is a step-growth polymerization.
The distinction between "addition polymerization" and "condensation polymerization" was introduced by Wallace Hume Carothers in 1929, and refers to the type of product produced. Addition polymerization produces only a polymer molecule, while condensation polymerization produces a polymer as well as a molecule with a low molecular weight, usually water.
- Introduction to Polymers 1987 R.J. Young Chapman & Hall ISBN 0-412-22170-5
- "Glossary of basic terms in polymer science (IUPAC Recommendations 1996)" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry 68 (12): 2287–2311. 1996. doi:10.1351/pac199668122287.
- Susan E. M. Selke, John D. Culter, Ruben J. Hernandez, "Plastics packaging: Properties, processing, applications, and regulations", Hanser, 2004, p.29. ISBN 1-56990-372-7
- W. H. Carothers (1929). "Studies On Polymerization And Ring Formation. I. An Introduction To The General Theory Of Condensation Polymers". Journal of the American Chemical Society 51 (8): 2548–59. doi:10.1021/ja01383a041.
- Paul J. Flory, "Principles of Polymer Chemistry", Cornell University Press, 1953, p.39. ISBN 0-8014-0134-8