Adelaide of Hesse

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Adelaide of Hesse
Queen consort of Poland
Tenure 1341–1356
Coronation 29 September 1341
Born 1324
Died 1371 (aged 46–47)
Spouse Casimir III of Poland
House House of Hesse (by birth)
House of Piast (by marriage)
Father Henry II, Landgrave of Hesse
Mother Elisabeth of Thuringia

Adelaide of Hesse (1324–1371) was a daughter of Henry II, Landgrave of Hesse, and his wife Elisabeth of Thuringia. Adelaide was a member of the House of Hesse.


Unhappy marriage[edit]

On 29 September 1341, Adelaide married Casimir III the Great, King of Poland. This was Casimir's second marriage, after the death of his first wife, Aldona of Lithuania. Casimir had no male heir, though he had two daughters, Elizabeth and Kunigunde. On 29 September 1341, Adelaide was crowned in Poznań Cathedral. The marriage was very unhappy, Casimir started living separately from Adelaide soon after their marriage.


Their loveless marriage lasted until 1356. Casimir separated from Adelaide and married his mistress Christina. Christina was the widow of Miklusz Rokiczani, a wealthy merchant. The bigamy and his womanizing Casimir got into severe trouble with the clergy.

Casimir continued living with Christina despite complaints by Pope Innocent VI on behalf of Adelaide. The marriage lasted until 1363/1364 when Casimir again declared himself divorced. They had no children. The marriage to Adelaide was annulled in 1368. Then Casimir married his fourth wife Jadwiga (Hedwig) of Żagań. This marriage produced another three daughters.

With Adelaide still alive and Christina possibly as well, the marriage to Jadwiga was also considered bigamous. The legitimacy of the three last daughters was disputed. Casimir managed to have two of his daughters, Anna and Kunigunde legitimatized by Pope Urban V on 5 December 1369. Jadwiga the younger was legitimatized by Pope Gregory XI on 11 October 1371.

Later life[edit]

After the annulment of her marriage, Adelaide went back home to Hesse. After her ex-husband's death, she fought for her property rights. She spent the rest of her life in Hesse until her death in 1371, aged around forty-seven.


Adelaide of Hesse
Born: 1324
Royal titles
Title next held by
Aldona of Lithuania
Queen consort of Poland
Succeeded by
Christina Rokiczana