Temporal range: Late Miocene
|Range of Adrlphailurus based on fossil record|
Adelphailurus is an extinct genus of saber-toothed cats of the family Felidae and tribe Metailurini which inhabited western North America during the Miocene, living from 10.3—5.33 Ma and existing for approximately . 
It was a cougar-sized animal and may have had habits similar to those of a cougar. Its body had the same shape as a cougar except for a long and compressed upper canine. This would place this cat into the "false-sabertooth" group. Apart from that Adelphailurus had a retained upper second premolar, which is unusual for a cat.
- Turner, Alan; Antón, Mauricio (1997). The Big Cats and their fossil relatives. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10228-3.
- Paleobiology Database: Adelphailurus, Basic info.
- C. W. Hibbard. 1934. Two new genera of Felidae from the middle Pliocene of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37:239-255 
- R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W.H. Freeman and Company
- L. D. Martin. 1998. Felidae. Evolution of Tertiary mammals of North America (eds. C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs) 1:236-242
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