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Adenomus kelaartii.jpg
Adenomus kelaartii
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Adenomus
Cope, 1861
Type species
Adenomus badioflavus
Cope, 1860

Adenomus is a small genus of true toads, with only two species, endemic to Sri Lanka.[1][2][3] Adenomus kandianus was considered as extinct for 133 years, but was rediscovered in October 2009 in the Kandy area.[4]

Adenomus are slender toads that lack the supraorbital ridge (present in other Sri Lankan bufonids) and have smooth finger edges (versus granular). The largest species is Adenomus kelaartii where females can attain 50 mm (2.0 in) in snout–vent length.[5]


There are two species:[1][3]

Binomial name and author Common name
Adenomus kandianus (Günther, 1872) Kandyan dwarf toad
Adenomus kelaartii (Günther, 1858) Kelaart's toad

The species are syntopic in parts of their range, but generally speaking Adenomus kandianus is a lower-altitude species whereas Adenomus kelaartii is a high-altitude species.[3]


A third species, Adenomus dasi (Das's dwarf toad) was recognized in 2015 as being a synonym of Adenomus kandianus; the two show some morphological differences but negligible genetic divergence.[1][3]


  1. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Adenomus Cope, 1861". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  2. ^ "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Senevirathne, Gayani; Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Jayawardena, Beneeta; Bandara, Champika; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Pethiyagoda, Rohan (2015). "The Sri Lankan torrent toads (Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus): species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria". Zootaxa. 3911 (2): 245–261. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3911.2.6. 
  4. ^ L. J. Mendis Wickramasinghe, Dulan Ranga Vidanapathirana & Nethu Wickramasinghe (2012). "Back from the dead: The world's rarest toad Adenomus kandianus rediscovered in Sri Lanka" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3347: 63–68. 
  5. ^ Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Pethiyagoda, Rohan (1998). "A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with description of new species" (PDF). Journal of South Asian Natural History. 3: 213–248.