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Adenophora bulleyana - 2.JPG
Adenophora sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Campanulaceae
Genus: Adenophora

Floerkea Spreng. 1818, illegitimate homonym, not Willd. 1801 nor Raf. 1808

Adenophora is a genus of flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae, the bellflowers. Plants of this genus are known commonly as ladybells.[2] Most are native to eastern Asia, with a few in Europe. Many are endemic to either China or Siberia.[1][3]


These plants are perennial herbs, often with thick, fleshy roots. The stem usually grows erect from a caudex. There are usually several basal leaves borne on long petioles. The leaves on the stem are alternately arranged in most species. Flowers are solitary or borne in cymes. The corolla of the flower is bell-shaped, funnel-shaped, or tubular, with five lobes.[3] The corollas of most species are blue.[2] There is a characteristic nectar disc at the base of the stamens.[3]


There are about 62 species in the genus.[3]

Species include:[1][3][4]

Adenophora triphylla var. japonica
  1. Adenophora amurica – Heilongjiang
  2. Adenophora brevidiscifera – Sichuan
  3. Adenophora capillaris – Chongqing, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan
  4. Adenophora changaica – Mongolia
  5. Adenophora coelestis – Sichuan, Yunnan
  6. Adenophora contracta – Liaoning, Inner Mongolia
  7. Adenophora cordifolia – Henan
  8. Adenophora divaricata – spreading-branch ladybell[5] – Honshu, Shikoku, Korea, Amur, Primorye, Khabarovsk, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi
  9. Adenophora elata – Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi
  10. Adenophora erecta[6] – erect ladybell[5] – Ulleungdo Island
  11. Adenophora fusifolia – South Korea
  12. Adenophora gmelinii – narrow-leaf ladybell[5] – Buryatiya, Chita, Amur, Primorye, Mongolia, Korea, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi
  13. Adenophora golubinzevaeana – Krasnoyarsk
  14. Adenophora grandiflora – big-flower ladybell[5] – Korea
  15. Adenophora hatsushimae – Kyushu
  16. Adenophora himalayana – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Tibet, Nepal, northern India, Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan
  17. Adenophora hubeiensis – Hubei
  18. Adenophora × izuensis – Honshu
  19. Adenophora jacutica – Yakutiya
  20. Adenophora jasionifolia – Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
  21. Adenophora kayasanensis – Gayasan ladybell[5] – Korea
  22. Adenophora khasiana (syn. A. bulleyana) – Assam, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
  23. Adenophora koreana – Korean ladybell[5] – Korea
  24. Adenophora lamarckii – Lamark's ladybell[5] – Irkutsk, Altai, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Korea
  25. Adenophora lilifolia – lily-leaf ladybell[5] central and eastern Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Italy, etc.) east to Xinjiang
  26. Adenophora liliifolioides – Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Tibet
  27. Adenophora lobophylla – Sichuan
  28. Adenophora longipedicellata – Chongqing, Guizhou, W Hubei, Sichuan
  29. Adenophora maximowicziana – Shikoku
  30. Adenophora micrantha – Inner Mongolia
  31. Adenophora morrisonensis – Taiwan
  32. Adenophora nikoensis – Honshu
  33. Adenophora ningxianica[7] – Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia
  34. Adenophora palustris – marsh ladybell[5] – Jilin, Korea, Honshu
  35. Adenophora pereskiifolia – Manchurian ladybell[5] – Mongolia, Japan, Korea, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Amur, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Khabarovsk, Chita, Buryatiya
  36. Adenophora petiolata – Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang
  37. Adenophora pinifolia – Liaoning
  38. Adenophora polyantha – many-flower ladybell[5] – Korea, Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi
  39. Adenophora potaninii – Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan
  40. Adenophora probatovae – Primorye
  41. Adenophora racemosa – racemose ladybell[5] – Korea
  42. Adenophora remotidens – Incheon ladybell[5] – Korea
  43. Adenophora remotiflora – scattered ladybell[5] – Primorye, Japan, Korea, Manchuria
  44. Adenophora rupestris – Irkutsk
  45. Adenophora rupincola – Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan
  46. Adenophora sajanensis – Krasnoyarsk
  47. Adenophora sinensis – Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi
  48. Adenophora stenanthina – Mongolia, Gansu, Hebei, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Altai, Amur, Irkutsk, Chita, Buryatiya, Tuva
  49. Adenophora stenophylla – Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria
  50. Adenophora stricta – upright ladybell[5] – Korea, Japan, Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
  51. Adenophora sublata – Primorye, Khabarovsk
  52. Adenophora takedae – Honshu
  53. Adenophora taquetii – Jejudo ladybell[5] – Korea
  54. Adenophora tashiroi – Fukue Island, Jeju-do Island
  55. Adenophora taurica – Crimea
  56. Adenophora trachelioides – Anhui, Hebei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Zhejiang
  57. Adenophora tricuspidata – Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, much of Asiatic Russia
  58. Adenophora triphylla – giant bellflower – Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Laos, Vietnam, Russian Far East, Siberia
  59. Adenophora uryuensis – Hokkaido
  60. Adenophora wilsonii – Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan
  61. Adenophora wulingshanica – Beijing
  62. Adenophora xifengensis – Gansu


Many Adenophora species have been used in traditional Chinese medicine.[8]


  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ a b Perry, L. Perennial Plant Feature: Ladybells. Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont Extension
  3. ^ a b c d e 沙参属 sha shen shu Adenophora. Flora of China.
  4. ^ GRIN Species Records of Adenophora. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 364. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service. 
  6. ^ Lee, S., et al. (1997). A new species of Adenophora (Campanulaceae) from Korea. Journal of Plant Research 110(1) 77-80.
  7. ^ Song, G. and H. De-yuan. (1999). A new species of Chinese Adenophora (Campanulaceae). Novon 9(1) 46.
  8. ^ YouLi, H. (2010). Resource and utilization of medicinal plant of the genus Adenophora in Qinling Mountains. Medicinal Plant 1(12) 3-6.