Adham Khan

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Adham Khan
Marriage of Adham Khan, son of Mahan Anga, Akbarnama.jpg
Marriage of Adham Khan, son of Maham Anga, Akbarnama (ca 1590-1595)
Born 1531
Kabul, Mughal Empire, now Afghanistan
Died 16 May 1562 (aged 31)
Agra Fort, Mughal Empire, now India
Spouse(s) Javeda Begum
Moti Bai
Tasmeen Begum
Children Baqi Begum
Abdullah Khan
Sher Khan
unnamed daughter
Parent(s) Maham Anga (mother)

Adham Khan (1531 – 16 May 1562) was a general of Akbar. He was the younger son of Maham Anga, he thus became the foster brother of Akbar. In his fourth regnal year, Akbar married him to Javeda Begum, the daughter of Baqi Khan Baqlani.[1]

Conquest of Malwa[edit]

Mughal forces led by Adham Khan, enter the fort of Baz Bahadur of Malwa, 1561, Akbarnama ca. 1590-95.

After the dismissal of Bairam Khan, Adham Khan was appointed as a general and was sent to Malwa to capture it.

In 1561, the Mughal army led by Adham Khan and Pir Muhammad Khan invaded Malwa. They defeated the army of Baz Bahadur, the Sultan of Malwa in the battle of Sarangpur on March 29, 1561. All his treasures, elephants and his harem was captured by the victors. Adham Khan tried to take possession of Baz Bahadur's Hindu mistress Rani Roopmati also, but she killed herself by consuming poison. According to the historian Badauni, both the commanders, Adham Khan and Pir Muhammad Khan, perpetrated acts of barbaric cruelty, massacring the prisoners and killing even their wives and children. After the victory, Adham Khan sent to the emperor Akbar a report of victory along with only a few elephants, himself appropriating the rest of the spoils.

Akbar resented this insolence and personally marched to Sarangpur. He took Adham Khan by surprise. Adham Khan surrendered to Akbar and his spoils were seized. Later he was recalled from Malwa and the command was made over to Pir Muhammad Khan.[2]

Murder of Adham Khan and its aftermath[edit]

Adham Khan's Tomb, which also houses the tomb of his mother, Maham Anga, Mehrauli, Delhi.
Akbar orders punishment of Adham Khan, by throwing him twice, down the terrace. Akbarnama

In November, 1561 Akbar’s favourite general Ataga Khan, was appointed wakil (the prime minister), replacing Munim Khan. His appointment displeased Maham Anga.

On May 16, 1562, Adham Khan accompanied by a few ruffians burst in upon him as he sat in the hall of audience and murdered him. Adham Khan then rushed to the inner apartment where he was caught by Akbar, just roused from sleep by tumult. Akbar replied to the Adham Khan's explanation to palliate his crime by striking him down with a heavy blow of his fist. Adham was thrown down twice from the roof of a one storied building whose height was about 10 feet (which was possibly the reason why he had to be thrown down twice) by the royal order and put to death. Akbar himself broke this news to Maham Anga, who made a simple but dignified reply that he did well. This sudden demise of Adham Khan, made his mother mentally depressed and after forty days she also died.[3][4]

After his death his body was sent with respect to Delhi. Akbar built the mausoleum of Adham Khan in Mehrauli, where both Adham Khan and his foster mother Maham Anga were buried.[5] This mausoleum, popularly known as Bhul-bhulaiyan, due to a labyrinthine maze inside, and stands on the ramparts of the Lal Kot, located at the north of the Qutub Minar.

Personal life[edit]

He married Javeda Begum, the daughter of Baqi Khan Baqlani, in 1552. His second marriage was to Moti Bai, a chief assistant of Akbar's wife, Mariam-uz-Zamani. His third wife was Tasmeen Begum, a girl in Akbar's harem. He had 2 sons and 2 daughters, Baqi Begum married to Akbar on 1567 by Rani Rupmati; Abdullah Khan married Akbar's daughter, Aram Banu Begum; Sher Khan, to Moti Bai in 1566 was later killed by Emperor Jahangir. The other daughter married Raja Man Singh I, a general and king of Jaipur.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Beveridge, H. (1907, reprint 2000). The Akbarnama of Abu'l Fazl, Vol. II, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81-7236-093-2, p.129
  2. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, p. 112
  3. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.113-4
  4. ^ Beveridge, H. (1907, reprint 2000). The Akbarnama of Abu'l Fazl, Vol. II, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81-7236-093-2, pp. 268-75
  5. ^ Beveridge, H. (1907, reprint 2000). The Akbarnama of Abu'l Fazl, Vol. II, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81-7236-093-2, p. 274