Adhyatma Ramayana

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Adhyatma Ramayana folio (1891 CE) by Sarathi Madala Patnaik, depicting, the creation of Maya Sita

Adhyatma Ramayana (Devanāgarī: अध्यात्म रामायण, literally "Spiritual Ramayana") is a medieval Sanskrit text extolling the spiritualism in the story of Ramayana. It is embedded in the latter portion of Brahmānda Purana. The text philosophically attempts to reconcile Bhakti in god Rama and Shaktism with Advaita Vedanta, over 65 chapters and 4,500 verses.[1][2]

Taking the form of a dialogue between Shiva and Parvati, Adhyatama Ramayana contains the ideal characteristics of Lord Rama and the precepts related to devotion, knowledge, dispassion, adoration and good conduct. It is supposed to have inspired several later versions of the Ramayana story in languages like Awadhi (Ramcharitmanas by Tulsidas), Oriya, Bengali and Malayalam.

Name[edit]

The word Adhyatma (Sanskrit: अध्यात्म) means "transcendental, relating to Atman (self, soul)".[3]

Significance[edit]

Adhyatma Ramayana represents the story of Rama in a spiritual context. The text constitutes over 35% of the chapters of Brahmanda Purana, often circulated as an independent text in the Vaishnavism tradition,[4] and is an Advaita Vedanta treatise of over 65 chapters and 4,500 verses.[1][2][5]

Rama, Lakshmana and Sita

The text represents Rama as the Brahman (metaphysical reality), mapping all saguna (attributes) of Rama to the nirguna nature (ultimate unchanging attributeless virtues and ideals).[5] Adhyatma Ramayana raises every mundane activity of Rama to a spiritual or transcendent level, the story into symbolism, thus instructing the seeker to view his or her own life through the symbolic vision for his soul, where the external life is but a metaphor for the eternal journey of the soul in Advaita terminology.[5]

The book is aimed to be used as a guide and a ready source of instruction for a spiritual seeker, as it presents the Ramayana as a divine allegory. The text influenced the popular Ramcharitmanas by Tulsidas.[4][5]

Overview[edit]

The Adhyatma Ramayana is organized into seven Kandas, or chapters:
1. Bal Kand - This chapter begins with the description of Brahmaswarup, the cosmic and celestial appearance of Lord Rama as an avatar of Vishnu, who descended to earth as a human being to remove rakshasas(demons) such as Ravana. It includes Rama’s childhood and the story of Ahilya's deliverance by Rama.
2. Ayodhya Kand - Life in Ayodhya, including Rama's exile, the death of his father Dasarath, etc.
3. Aranya Kand - The forest (Aranya) chapter, which includes the kidnapping of Sita by Ravana.
4. Kishkindha Kand - the episode of Kishkindha. This chapter describes the killing of Bali, and the initiation of the active search for Sita.
5. Sundar Kand - details Hanuman's arrival and activities in Lanka.
6. Lanka Kand - corresponding to the Yuddha Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana. It contains details of the battles between Rama's armies and Ravana, the killing of Ravana, and the coronation of Rama upon his return to Ayodhya from Lanka.
7. Uttar Kand - Epilogue. It includes the banishment of Sita, the birth of Lava and Kusha - the sons of Rama and Sita - and Rama’s departure from the earth to Vaikuntha, the abode of Lord Vishnu. The fifth adhyaya (sub-chapter) of the Uttar Kanda describes a conversation between Lord Rama and his brother Lakshmana, often referred to as the Rama Gita (the song of Rama). It is essentially an Advaitic philosophical work.[6]

Translations[edit]

  • Bhanubhakta Acharya translated Ramayan from Sanskrit to Nepali.
  • Swami Tapasyananda, Adhyatma Ramayana, Original Sanskrit, with English Translation, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras. 1985.
  • Baij Nath Puri, Lala Baij Nath. The Adhyatma Ramayana, Cosmo Publications, 2005. ISBN 81-7755-895-1.
  • Beladakere Suryanarayana Shastri, Adhyatma Ramayana, Kannada translation with Sanskrit original, Shri Jayachamaraja Granthamala, Series 47, Mysore, 1948.
  • Subir Kumar Sen, Adhyatma Ramayanam from Sanskrit to English,Shastra Dharma Prachar Sabha,2012. ISBN 978-81-920022-1-7

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rocher 1986, pp. 158-159 with footnotes, Quote: "Among the texts considered to be connected with the Brahmanda, the Adhyatma-ramayana is undoubtedly the most important one".
  2. ^ a b Winternitz 1922, p. 552.
  3. ^ Adhyātma, Sanskrit-English Digital Lexicon, Koeln University, Germany (2011)
  4. ^ a b John Nicol Farquhar (1920). An Outline of the Religious Literature of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 324–325. 
  5. ^ a b c d RC Prasad (1989). Tulasīdāsa's Sriramacharitmanasa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xiv–xv, 875–876. ISBN 978-81-208-0443-2. 
  6. ^ Adhyatma Ramayana advaita-vedanta.org

' Ramayana kathaganam- adyatma ramayana visishtata ' by M.S.Rani Prameela Devi

'saraswata vyasamulu ' by Nori Narasimha sastri

External links[edit]