Adina Beg

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Adina Beg Khan (died 15 September 1758 Lahore, ) was one of the generals of the Mughal forces led by Mir Mannu, who was later appointed as the governor of the Punjab including Lahore, Jalandhar and Multan under suzerainty of the Mughal Empire from 1755 to 1758.[1]

Adina Beg was born in Sharakpur, near Lahore, now in Sheikhupura district of Pakistan. Adina Beg was brought up in Mughal homes, for the most part in Jalalabad, Khanpur and Bajvara in the Jalandhar Doab.[citation needed]

He was appointed as governor of Jalandhar Daob in 1739 by Mughal chief wazir Zakarya Khan. Adina was a trachearous leader in difficulty times, who changed sides till his death.

  1. In 1747, he convinced governor of Punjab , Shah Nawaz to invite Afghan leader , of Sadozai clan Ahmad Shah Durrani to invade India- which was first and partially successful invasion of Lahore and Delhi by Ahmad Shah Durrani .
  2. In 1748 , Mir Mannu was declared as governor of Punjab , but he wasn't receiving sufficient support from Chief Wazir Safadar Jang at Delhi. Mir Mannu instructed Adina to move against Sikhs to curb their growing power.
  3. During second invasion of Punjab , while Mir Mannu was fighting Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Durrani in near Chenab, sikhs entered Lahore. Second invasion resulted in Afghans having control of territory to the west of Indus. Later, Mir Mannu took help on Kaura Mal, Sikh leader to regain Multan from Shah Nawaz, and Kaura Mal was made governor of Multan.
  4. In third invasion, , where Sikhs and Adina fought on side from Mir Mannu, against Ahmad Shah Durrani, was more successful and Lahore, Multan was ceded to Ahmad Shah Durrani . while sikh leader Kaura Mal was killed and Mir Mannu was defeated, Adina Beg quietly retreated. [2]
  5. In 1753 Adina moved against Sikhs in Anandpur, who took revenge by plundering Jalandhar and immediately later peace was accorded between Sikhs and Adina Beg.
  6. In fourth invasion (1756-57) , troops of Ahmad Shah Durrani while going homewards was ferociously attacked by Sikhs and looted near Sirhind. Further the troops of Adina Beg and Sikhs fought together against Afghans at Hoshiarpur. Later troops of 20,000 horsemen of Timur Shah Durrani was deeated and captured by Sikhs. This resulted in insecurity in mind of Adina Beg , who invited Marathas, who had taken Delhi to come to Punjab and recapture Lahore. Sikhs and Marathas under Raghunath Rao rout Afghans from Lahore by March 1758. Adina became subedar of Punjab , by promising 75 lacs a year to be paid to Marathas. Raghunath Rao and Malhar Rao Holkar the two commander-in-chief of Maratha forces remain in Lahore for 3 months after which they retire to Pune giving the control to Adina Beg Khan. [3][4] [2]
  7. Adina Beg attacked Ramgarh fort of Sikhs and by September 1758 died of attack of colic.[5]

His life is described in an unpublished Persian manuscript Ahwal-i-Dina Beg Khan. Beg died, apparently of colic, on 15 September 1758.

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.thesikhencyclopedia.com/the-sikh-empire-1799-1839/maratha-sikh-relations
  2. ^ a b Singh, Khushwant (1991). A History of the Sikhs, Volume 1. The Oxford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-19-562643-5. 
  3. ^ Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1. ISBN 978-81-7824-109-8. 
  4. ^ S.R. Sharma (1999). Mughal empire in India: a systematic study including source material. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 763. ISBN 978-81-7156-819-2. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Dina Arain: the master ‘double game’ player

Further reading[edit]

  1. Gupta, Hari Ram, History of the Sikhs, vol. II. Delhi, 1978
  2. Gandhi, Surjit Singh, Struggle of the Sikhs for Sovereignty. Delhi, 1980
  3. Bhagat Singh, Sikh Polity. Delhi, 1978