List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities

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The following is a list of adjectival forms of cities in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these cities.

Demonyms ending in -ese are the same in the singular and plural forms.

The ending -man has feminine equivalent -woman (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as", respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' /tʃ/ sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify as its -ch is pronounced /k/).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name.

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms also refer to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. Additionally, sometimes the use of one or more additional words is optional. Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds.

Note: Many of these adjectivals and demonyms are not used in English as frequently as their counterparts in other languages. A common practice is to use a city's name as if it were an adjective, as in "Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra", "Melbourne suburbs", etc.


City Adjective Demonym (colloquial)
Aberdeen Aberdonian Aberdonian
Abidjan Abidjanais Abidjanais
Adelaide Adelaidean Adelaidean
Aguascalientes Hidrocálido Hidrocálido
Aix-en-Provence Aixois Aixois
Albany Albanian Albanian
Albuquerque Albuquerquean Burqueño
Aleppo Aleppine Aleppine
Alexandria Alexandrian Alexandrine
Almería Almerian, Almeriense, Urcitano Almerian, Almeriense, Urcitano
Alpine Alpinian Alpinian
Amalfi Amalfitan Amalfitan
Ammon Ammonite Ammonite
Amsterdam Amsterdammer Amsterdammer
Angeles Angelino Angelino
Aosta Aostan, Aostain Aostan, Aostain
Armagh Armachian Armachian
Armidale Armidilian Armidilian
Ashdod Ashdodi Ashdodi
Asheville Ashevillain Ashevillain
Ashkelon Ashkelonian Ashkelonian
Athens Athenian Athenian
Atlanta Atlantian Atlantian
Auckland Auckland Aucklander, Jafa
Austin Austonian Austinite
Bacolod Bacolodnon Bacolodnon
Baltimore Baltimorean Baltimorean
Bandung Bandungite Bandungite
Bangalore Bangalorean Bangalorean
Bangkok Bangkokian Bangkokian
Barcelona Barcelonian Barcelonian
Barisal Barisali Barisali, Borishali
Baton Rouge Baton Rougean Baton Rougean
Bedford Bedfordian (not Bedfordite) Bedfordian
Beersheba Beersheban Beersheban
Beijing (Peking) Pekinese Beijinger, Pekinese
Beirut Beiruti Beiruti
Belfast Belfast Belfastite
Belo Horizonte Belo-Horizontino Belo-Horizontino
Belgrade Belgradian Belgradian, Belgrader
Benevento Beneventan Beneventan
Bergamo Bergamasque Bergamasque
Berlin Berliner Berliner
Bern Bernese Bernese
Birmingham Birminghamian, Brummie Birminghamian, Brummie
Birmingham Birminghamian Birminghamian, Birminghamster
Bnei Brak Bnei Brakian Bnei Brakian
Bologna Bolognese Bolognese
Bogota Bogotan Bogotan, Rolo
Bolton Boltonian Boltonian
Bordeaux Bordelais Bordelais
Boston Bostonian Bostonian
Brasilia Brasiliense Brasiliense
Bratislava Bratislavan Bratislavan
Bremen Bremener Bremener
Brescia Brescian Brescian
Brighton Brightonian Brightonian
Brisbane Brisbanite Brisbanite, Brisvegan
Bristol Bristolian Bristolian
Brussels Bruxellois,[a] Brusselaar,[b] Brusseleir[c]
Bucaramanga Bumangués, -a, Santandereana/o Bumangués, -a, Santandereana/o
Bucharest Bucharestian Bucharester
Budapest Budapesti Budapester
Buenos Aires Bonaerense, Porteño Bonaerense, Porteño
Buffalo Buffalonian Buffalonian
Burlington Burlingtonian Burlingtonian
Cádiz Gaditano, Gaditano
Cagayan de Oro Cagayanon Cagayanon
Cairns Cairnsitte Cairnsitte
Cairo Cairene Cairene
Calgary Calgarian Calgarian
Cambridge Cantabrigian Cantabrigian
Cambridge Cantabrigian Cantabrigian
Campinas Campineiro Campineiro
Campo Grande Campo-grandense campo-grandense
Canberra Canberran Canberran
Cape Town Capetonian Capetonian
Caracas Caraquenian Caraquenian
Cardiff Cardiffian Cardiffian
Carlisle Carlislian Carlislian
Carson City Carsonite Carsonite
Carystus Carystian Christian
Casper Casperite Casperite
Cebu Cebuano Cebuano
Charleston Charlestonian Charlestonian
Charlotte Charlottean Charlottean
Chelmsford Chelmsfordian Chelmsfordian
Chennai Chennaite Chennaite
Chester Cestrian Cestrian
Cheyenne Cheyenneite Cheyenneite
Chicago Chicagoan Chicagoan
Chittagong Chittagonian Chittagonian, Chottogrami
Christchurch Cantabrian Cantabrian
Cincinnati Cincinnatian Cincinnatian
Cleveland Clevelander Clevelander
Columbus Columbusite Columbusite
Copenhagen Copenhagener Copenhagener
Córdoba Cordobés, Cordobense Cordobés
Corinth Corinthian Corinthian
Cork Cork Corkonian, Leesider
Culiacán Culichi Cliché
Cusco Cusco Cusqueño
Kraków (Cracow) Krakovian, Cracovian Krakovian, Cracovian
Curitiba Curitibano Curitibano
Dallas Dallasite, Dallasonian
Da Lat Dalatese Dalatese
Damascus Damascene Damascene
Darwin Darwinian[d] Darwinian[d]
Davao Davaoeño Davaoeño
Delhi Delhiite Delhiite
Denver Denver, Mile High Denverite
Derry Derry Derrian
Detroit Detroiter
Devonport Devonportian Devonportian
Dhaka Dhakai Dhakai, Dhakaiya, Dhaka Nogor-bashi, Dhakaite
Dresden Dresdener Dresdener
Dublin Dublin Dubliner, Dub
Dubai Dubaite Dubaite
Duluth Duluthian Duluthian
Dundee Dundonian Dundonian
Dunedin Dunedin Dunedinite
Durango Durangoan Duranguense
Durango Durangoan Durangoan, Durangotan, Durangotang
Durban Durban Durbanite
East Troy East Trojan East Trojan
Edinburgh Edinburgensian[e][1] Edinburger[f][2]
Edmonton Edmontonian Edmontonian
Eilat Eilatian Eilatian
Epidaurus Epidaurian Epidaurian
Ferrara Ferraran Ferraran
Florence Florentine Florentine
Florence Florentine Florentine
Fort Lauderdale Fort Lauderdaler, Fort Lauderdalian
Fort Wayne Fort Wayniac
Fort Worth Fort Worthian, Fort Worther
Foz do Iguaçu Iguaçuense Iguaçuense
Frankfurt Frankfurter Frankfurter
Fredericton Frederictonian Frederictonian
Fresno Fresnan Fresnan, Fresnoan, Fresnian
Galway Galway Galwegian
Geneva Genevan, Genevese Genevan, Genevese
Genoa Genoese Genoese
Germiston Germistonian Germistonian
Glasgow Glaswegian Glaswegian
Gold Coast Gold Coast Gold Coaster
Gothenburg Gothenburger Gothenburger
Granada Granadino, Granadí, Iliberitano Granadino, Iliberitano
Grand Rapids Grand Rapidian Grand Rapidian
Graz Grazer Grazer
Grenoble Grenoblois Grenoblois
Guadalajara Tapatío Tapatío
The Hague Haguer Haguer
Haifa Haifan Haifan
Halifax Haligonian Haligonian
Hamburg Hamburger Hamburger
Hamilton Hamiltonian Hamiltonian
Hamilton Hamiltonian Hamiltonian
Hanoi Hanoian Hanoian
Hanover Hanoverian Hanoverian
Hartlepool Hartlepudlian Hartlepudlian, Monkey hanger
Hastings Hastingite Hastingite
Helsinki Helsinkian Helsinkian
Ho Chi Minh City Saigonese Saigoner
Hobart Hobartian Hobartian
Holon Holonian Holonian
Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hongkongish, Hongkongese Hongkonger, Hongkongish, Honger, HongKongese
Honolulu Honolulan Honolulan
Houston Houstonian Houstonian
Huelva Onubense, Huelveño Onubense, Huelveño
Hyderabad Hyderabadi Hyderabadi
Iloilo Ilonggo Ilonggo
Indianapolis Hoosier Hoosier, Indianapolitan
Invercargill Invercargill Invercargillite, Invercargillonian
Inverness Invernessian Invernessian
Iqaluit Iqalummiuq, Iqalummiut
Islamabad Islamabadi Islamabadian
Itabira Itabirano Itabirano
Istanbul Istanbulite Istanbulite
Jacksonville Jacksonvillian, Jaxon Jacksonvillian, Jaxon[3]
Izmir Izmirian Izmirian
Jaén Jienense, Jaenés, Aurgitano Jienense, Aurgitano
Jakarta Jakartan Jakartanais, Jakartan
Jerusalem Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi
Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburger
Juiz de Fora Juiz-forano Juiz-forano
Juneau City/Borough Juneauite
Kaluga Kaluzhanin Kaluzhane
Karachi Karachiite Karachiite
Kastoria Kastorian Kastorian
Kenosha Kenoshan Kenoshan
Khulna Khulna Khulnar, Khulni (Rarely used)
Kiev Kievan Kievan
Kingston Kingstonian Kingstonian
Kitchener Kitchenerite Kitchenerite
Knoxville Knoxvillian Knoxvillian
Kuching Kuchingite Kuchingite
Lagos Lagosian Lagosian
Lahore Lahori Lahori
Lancaster Lancastrian Lancastrian
La Paz Paceño Paceño
Las Vegas Las Vegan Las Vegan
Laval Lavalois(e) Lavalois(e)
Leeds Leodensian Leodensian, Loiner
Leipzig Leipziger Leipziger
León Leonese Leonese
Lexington[disambiguation needed] Lexingtonian Lexingtonian
Lima Limeño Limeño
Linz Linzer Linzer
Lisbon Lisboeta Lisboeta, Alfacinha
Liverpool Liverpudlian, Scouse Liverpudlian, Scouser
Livorno Leghornese, Livornese Leghornese, Livornese
London Londoner Londoner
Londrina Londrinense Londrinense
Los Angeles Angeleno Los Angelan, Angeleno
Louisville Louisvillian Louisvillian
Lucca Lucchese Lucchesi
Lviv Leopolitan Lviviane
Lyon (Lyons) Lyonese, Lyonnais Lyonese, Lyonnais
Macau Macanese Macanese
Madrid Madrilenian, Madrileño Madrilenian, Madrileño
Malacca Malaccan Malaccan
Málaga Malagenean, Malagueño, Malacitano Malagenean, Malagueño, Malacitano
Manaus Manauara, Manauense Manauara, Manauense
Manchester Mancunian Mancunian, Manc
Manila Manileño Manileño
Mantua Mantuan Mantuan
Marathon Marathonian Marathonian
Marseille Marseillais Marseillais
Medellín Paisa Paisa
Megara Megarian Megarian
Melbourne Melburnian, Melbournian Melburnian, Melbournian, Melbournite
Memphis Memphian Memphian
Messina Messinese Messinese
Mexico City Capitalino Capitalino, Chilango, Defeño
Miami Miamian Miamian
Milan Milanese Milanese
Milan Milanites, Milaner
Milwaukee Milwaukeean Milwaukeean
Misrata Misratan Misratan
Minneapolis Minneapolitan Minneapolitan
Minot Minotian Minoter
Modena Modenese Modenese
Monaco Monegasque Monegasque, Monacoan
Monterrey Regiomontano Regiomontano
Montreal Montrealer Montrealer, Montrealais
Moose Jaw Moose Jaw Moose Javians
Moscow Muscovite Muscovite
Mumbai Mumbaikar Mumbaikar
Muncie Munsonian Munsonian
Munich Münchner Münchner
Mymensingh Mymensinghi Mymensinghi
Napier Napieran Napieran
Naples Neapolitan Neapolitan
Nashville Nashvillian Nashvillian
Nassau Nassuvian Nassuvian
Navarre Navarrian Navarrian
Nazareth Nazarene Nazarene
Nelson Nelson Nelsonian
Netanya Netanyan, Netanian Netanyan, Netanian
New Orleans New Orleanian New Orleanian, New Orleaner, Yat
New York City New York New Yorker, Knickerbocker
New York CityThe Bronx Bronx Bronxite, Bronxer
New York CityBrooklyn Brooklyn Brooklynite, Trolley Dodger (archaic)
New York CityManhattan Manhattan Manhattanite
New York CityQueens Queens Queensite
New York CityStaten Island[g] Staten Island Staten Islander
Newcastle Novocastrian Novocastrian
Newcastle upon Tyne Novocastrian, Geordie Novocastrian, Geordie
Nice Niçois Niçois
Nicosia Nicosian Nicosian
Norfolk Norfolker, Norfolkian Norfolker, Norfolkian
Northampton Northamptonian Northamptonian
Nuremberg Nuremberger, Nürnberger Nuremberger, Nürnberger
Oakbank Oakbankian Oakbankian
Oakland Oaklander Oaklander
Oamaru Oamaru, Oamaruvian Oamaruvian
Oaxaca Oaxacan Oaxaqueño
Odessa Odessit, Odessite Odessite
Omak Omakian Omakian[4]
Oklahoma City Oklahoma Cityan Oklahoma Cityan
Osaka Osakan Naniwakko, Osakan
Ottawa Ottawan Ottawan
Oxford Oxonian[h] Oxonian[h]
Paddock Lake Paddock Laker Paddock Laker
Padua Paduan Paduan
Paducah Paducahan Paducahan
Palermo Palermitan Palermitan
Palmerston North Palmerstonian Palmerstonian
Paris Parisian Parisian
Parma Parmesan Parmesan
Penang Penangite Penangite
Perth Perthert, Perthite, Perthian
Perugia Perugian Perugian
Peterborough Peterbourian Peterbourian
Philadelphia Philadelphian Philadelphian
Phoenix Phoenician, Phoenixer Phoenician, Phoenixer
Pisa Pisan Pisan
Pittsburgh Pittsburgher Pittsburgher, Yinzer
Polmont Polmontarian Polmontarian
Pompeii Pompeian, Pompeiian Pompeian, Pompeiian
Ponferrada Ponferradian Ponferradian
Port Harcourt Harcourtian, Port Harcourtian Harcourtian, Port Harcourtian
Porto Portuense Portuense, Tripeiro
Porto Alegre Porto-Alegrense Porto-Alegrense
Portland Portlander Portlander
Prague Praguer Praguer
Pripyat Pripyatin Pripyatin
Pristina Prishtinali, Prishtina, Prištinci, Prištevci
Providence Providentian Providentian
Provo Provoan Provoan
Pylos Pylian Pylian
Quebec City Québécois[i] Québécois[i]
Rajshahi Rajshahiyo Rajshahir, Rajshahiyo
Radnor Radnorian Radnorian
Randall Randallite Randallite
Rangpur City Rangpuri Rongpuri, Rangpuri
Reading Readingite Readingite
Red Deer Red Deerian Red Deerian
Regina Regina, Reginan Reginan
Reno Renoite Renoite
Rethymno Rethymnian Rethymnian
Reims (Rheims) Rémois, Cornichon Rémois
Richmond Richmonder Richmonder
Riga Rigan Rigan
Rio de Janeiro Carioca Carioca
Rhodes Rhodian Rhodian
Rochester (Rochesterian) Rochesterian
Rome Roman Roman
Rotorua Rotoruan Rotoruan
Rotterdam Rotterdammer Rotterdammer
Rouen Rouennais Rouennais
St. Louis St. Louisan St. Louisan
Sacramento Sacramentan Sacramentan
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburgian Saint Petersburgian, (Saint) Petersburger
Salem Salemite Salemite
Salerno Salernitan Salernitan
Salt Lake City Salt Lake Salt Laker
Salvador Soteropolitano Soteropolitano
Salzburg Salzburger Salzburger
San Antonio San Antonian San Antonian
San Diego San Diegan San Diegan
San Francisco San Franciscan San Franciscan
San Jose San Josean San Josean
Santa Clarita Santa Claritan Santa Claritan
Santa Cruz de la Sierra Cruceño Cruceño
São Carlos Sãocarlense, Carlopolitano Sãocarlense, Carlopolitano
São Luís Ludovicense Ludovicense
São Paulo Paulistano Paulistano
Sarajevo Sarajevan Sarajevan
Saskatoon Saskatoon, Saskatonian Saskatonian, Saskabusher
Savannah Savannian Savannian
Seattle Seattleite Seattleite
Seoul Seoulite Seoulite
Serres Serrean Serrean
Seville Sevillian, Sevillano, Hispalense Sevillian, Sevillano, Hispalense
Shanghai Shanghainese Shanghaine
Siena (Sienna) Sienese, Siennese Sienese, Siennese
Silver Lake Silver Laker Silver Laker
Sheffield Sheffielder
Skopje Skopjan Skopjan
Slough Sluff Sluff
Sofia Sofian Sofian
Solihull Silhillian Silhillian
Somers Somersite Somersite
Sorrento Sorrentine Sorrentine
Southampton Sotonian Sotonian
Sparta Spartan Spartan
Spoleto Spoletian Spoletian
Shkoder Shkodran Shkodran
Stockholm Stockholmer Stockholmer
Strasbourg Strasbourgeois Strasbourgeois
Stuttgart Stuttgarter Stuttgarter
Sunderland Mackem
Swindon Swindonian Swindonian
Sydney Sydneysider Sydneysider
Sylhet Sylheti Sylheti, Siloti
Syracuse Syracusan Syracusan
Syracuse Syracusian Syracusian
Tallinn Tallinner Tallinner
Tartu Tartuan Tartuan
Taranto Tarantine, Tarentine Tarantine, Tarentine
Tbilisi Tbilisian Tbilisian, Tbiliselebi
Tel Aviv Tel Avivian Tel Avivian
Thebes Theban Theban
Thessaloniki Thessalonian Thessalonian
Tirana Tiranas Tirons
Tokyo Edokko, Tokyoite
Toowoomba Toowoomban Toowoomban
Toronto Torontonian Torontonian[5]
Tournai Tournaisian Tournaisian
Townsville Townsvillian Townsvillian
Trevor Trevorite Trevorite
Trent Tridentine Tridentine
Trieste Triestine Triestine
Tripoli Tripolitan Tripolitan
Trois-Rivières Trifluvien, Trifluvienne, Trifluvian Trifluvien, Trifluvienne, Trifluvian
Trois-Rivières Trois-rivieran Trois-rivieran
Tucson Tucsonan Tucsonan
Tulsa Tulsan Tulsan
Turin Turinese Turinese
Twin Lakes Twin Laker Twin Laker
Uberlândia Uberlandense Uberlandense
Valencia Valencian Valencian
Valladolid Vallisoletano, Pucelano, Pinciano Vallisoletano, Pucelano, Pinciano
Vancouver Vancouverite Vancouverite
Venice Venetian Venetian
Veracruz Veracruzano Veracruzano, Jarocho
Verona Veronese Veronese
Vicenza Vicentine Vicentine
Vichy Vichyssois Vichyssois
Vienna Viennese, Wiener Viennese, Wiener
Villanova Villanovan Villanovan
Vilnius Vilnian Vilnian
Warsaw Varsovian Varsovian
Washington, D.C. Washingtonian[j] Washingtonian[j]
Waterford Waterfordian Waterfordian, Déise, Suirsider
Wellington Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonian
Wheatland Wheatlander Wheatlander
Wichita Wichitan Wichitan
Wilmot Wilmotter Wilmotter
Winchester Wintonian
Winnipeg Winnipeggers, Winnipeger
Wolverhampton Wulfrunian
Xalapa Xalapeño Xalapeño
Xanthi Xanthian Xanthian
Yerevan Yerevantsi Yerevantsi
Zacatecas Zacatecan Zacatecano
Zagreb Zagrebian Zagreber, Zagrebian
Zamboanga Zamboangueño Zamboangueño
Zintan Zintani Zintani
Zurich Zuricher Zuricher
  1. ^ Used to identify francophones.
  2. ^ Used to identify Dutch speakers.
  3. ^ Used to identify those bi- or multilingual citizens merely belonging to Brussels.
  4. ^ a b Not to be confused with the movements and concepts of English naturalist Charles Darwin.
  5. ^ Rare.
  6. ^ Rare.
  7. ^ Formerly Richmond.
  8. ^ a b Also used to identify graduates of the University of Oxford.
  9. ^ a b Often confused with residents of the Province of Québec. If it is necessary to distinguish between residents of the city and the province, French-speakers will use québécois/e de Québec for the city and québécois/e du Québec for the province.
  10. ^ a b Not to be confused with the inhabitants of Washington State.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Google Books
  2. ^ Google Books
  3. ^ "Call Box". The Florida Times-Union. April 26, 2000. Retrieved July 17, 2012. 
  4. ^ Clark, Doug (March 26, 1996). "Town Tradition Goads Residents Into Donations". The Spokesman-Review. Cowles Publishing Company. Retrieved April 6, 2013. 
  5. ^ Street, Hudson (September 13, 1911). "Old Torontonian: If He Likes Toronto So Much, Why Live Here?". The New York Times. p. 8. Retrieved February 23, 2008.