List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

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The following is a list of adjectival and demonymic forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents. A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy". A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany. Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final s or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / -ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding e (-oise / -aise) makes them singular feminine; es (-oises / -aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish and Portuguese terminations -o usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the -o and adding -a. The plural forms are usually -os and -as respectively.

Adjectives ending in -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cuisines, cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

Note - in cases where two or more adjectival forms are given, there is often a subtle difference in usage between the two. This is particularly the case with Central Asian countries where one form tends to relate to the nation and the other often relates to the predominant ethnic group (e.g., Uzbek is primarily an ethnicity, Uzbekistani relates to citizens of Uzbekistan).

In addition, several countries have a large number of sub-names for their citizens in the form of nicknames for people of certain different areas; these are usually related to something typical of the area. In Puerto Rico for example, people who come from the town of Bayamón are referred to as "Cowboy(s)" or "Cowgirl(s)"; those from Caguas are referred to as "Criollo(s)" or "Criolla(s)". Except in cases such as Spain, in which sub-names have been used interchangeably by others, sub-names belonging to some areas in a country are not listed here.


Country name Adjectivals Demonyms
official or common colloquial
Abkhazia (region in Georgia) Abkhaz, Abkhazian Abkhazians
Afghanistan Afghan Afghans
Åland Islands Åland Island Åland Islanders
Albania Albanian Albanians
Algeria Algerian Algerians
American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans
Andorra Andorran Andorrans
Angola Angolan Angolans
Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans
Antarctica[1] Antarctic Antarctic residents
Antigua and Barbuda Antiguan or Barbudan Antiguans or Barbudans
Argentina Argentinian[2] Argentines "Gauchos"
Armenia Armenian Armenians
Aruba Aruban Arubans
Australia Australian Australians "Aussies"
Austria Austrian Austrians
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani, Azeri Azerbaijanis, Azeris
Bahamas, The Bahamian Bahamians
Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis
Bangladesh Bengali Bangladeshis "Deshis", "Bengis", "Bennies", "Bengullies", "Banglas", "Bengalis"
Barbados Barbadian Barbadians "Bajans"
Belarus Belarusian Belarusians
Belgium Belgian Belgians
Belize Belizean Belizeans
Benin Beninese, Beninois Beninese, Beninois
Bermuda Bermudian, Bermudan Bermudians, Bermudans "Onions"
Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians
Bonaire Bonaire Bonaire Dutch
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian or Herzegovinian Bosnians or Herzegovinians
Botswana Motswana, Botswanan Motswana (sing., plural Batswana), Botswanans
Bouvet Island Bouvet Island none
Brazil Brazilian Brazilians
British Indian Ocean Territory BIOT British
Brunei Bruneian Bruneian
Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians
Burkina Faso Burkinabé Burkinabè/Burkinabé
Burma[3] Burmese Burmese, Bamar
Burundi Burundian Burundians, Barundi
Cabo Verde[4] Cabo Verdean Cabo Verdeans
Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians
Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians
Canada Canadian Canadians "Canucks"
Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians
Central African Republic Central African Central Africans
Chad Chadian Chadians
Chile Chilean Chileans
China, People's Republic of[5] Chinese Chinese
China, Republic of[5] Taiwanese
Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Island Cocos Islanders
Colombia Colombian Colombians "Cafeteros"
Comoros Comoran, Comorian Comorans, Comorians
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congolese Congolese
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands Cook Island Cook Islanders
Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans "Ticos"
Côte d'Ivoire[6] Ivorian Ivorians
Croatia Croatian Croatians, Croats
Cuba Cuban Cubans
Curaçao Curaçaoan Curaçaoans
Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots
Czech Republic Czech Czechs
Denmark Danish Danes
Djibouti Djiboutian Djiboutians
Dominica Dominican[7] Dominicans[7]
Dominican Republic Dominican[8] Dominicans[8] "Quisqueyanos"
East Timor[9] Timorese Timorese "Maubere"
Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian Egyptians
El Salvador Salvadoran Salvadorans "Guanacos"
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean Equatorial Guineans, Equatoguineans
Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans
Estonia Estonian Estonians
Ethiopia Ethiopian Ethiopians Habesha
European Union[10] European[11] Europeans[11]
Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders "Belongers"
Faroe Islands Faroese Faroese
Fiji Fijian Fijians
Finland Finnish Finns
France French French, Frenchmen/Frenchwomen "Gauls"
French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese
French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesians
French Southern Territories French Southern Territories French
Gabon Gabonese Gabonese, Gabonaise
Gambia, The Gambian Gambians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Germany German Germans
Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians "Llanitos"
Greece Greek, Hellenic Greeks, Hellenes
Greenland Greenlandic Greenlanders
Grenada Grenadian Grenadians
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Guadeloupians
Guam Guamanian Guamanians
Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans "Chapines"
Guernsey Channel Island Channel Islander
Guinea Guinean Guineans
Guinea-Bissau Bissau-Guinean Bissau-Guineans
Guyana Guyanese Guyanese
Haiti Haitian Haitians "Ayisyen"
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island or McDonald Islands none
Honduras Honduran Hondurans "Catrachos"
Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hong Kongese Hongkongers, Hong Kongese "Hongkies", "Hongers"
Hungary Hungarian, Magyar Hungarians, Magyars
Iceland Icelandic Icelanders
India Indian Indians
Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians
Iran Iranian, Persian Iranians, Persians
Iraq Iraqi Iraqis
Ireland[12] Irish Irish, Irishmen/Irishwomen
Isle of Man Manx Manx
Israel Israeli Israelis
Italy Italian Italians
Ivory Coast[13] Ivorian Ivorians
Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans
Jan Mayen Jan Mayen
Japan Japanese Japanese
Jersey Channel Island Channel Islander
Jordan Jordanian Jordanians
Kazakhstan Kazakhstani, Kazakh Kazakhstanis, Kazakhs
Kenya Kenyan Kenyans
Kiribati I-Kiribati I-Kiribati
North Korea North Korean Koreans
South Korea South Korean
Kosovo Kosovar, Kosovan Kosovars
Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz Kyrgyzstanis, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz
Laos Lao, Laotian Laos, Laotians
Latvia Latvian, Lettish Latvians, Letts
Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese
Lesotho Basotho Basotho (singular Mosotho)
Liberia Liberian Liberians
Libya Libyan Libyans
Liechtenstein Liechtensteiner Liechtensteiners
Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians
Luxembourg Luxembourg, Luxembourgish Luxembourgers
Macau Macanese, Chinese Macanese, Chinese
Macedonia, Republic of Macedonian Macedonians
Madagascar Malagasy Malagasy
Malawi Malawian Malawians
Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians
Maldives Maldivian Maldivians
Mali Malian, Malinese Malians
Malta Maltese Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese
Martinique Martiniquais, Martinican Martiniquais/Martiniquaises
Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians
Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians
Mayotte Mahoran Mahorans
Mexico Mexican Mexicans "Aztecas"
Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesian Micronesians
Moldova Moldovan Moldovans
Monaco Monégasque, Monacan Monégasques, Monacans
Mongolia Mongolian Mongolians, Mongols
Montenegro Montenegrin Montenegrins
Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians
Morocco Moroccan Moroccans
Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans
Myanmar[14] Burmese Burmese, Bamar
Namibia Namibian Namibians
Nauru Nauruan Nauruans
Nepal Nepali, Nepalese Nepali, Nepalese
Netherlands Dutch, Netherlandic Dutch, Dutchmen/Dutchwomen, Netherlanders
New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians
New Zealand New Zealand, NZ, Zelanian[15] New Zealanders, Zelanians[15] "Kiwis"
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans "Nicas", Pinoleros
Niger Nigerien Nigeriens
Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians "Naija"
Niue Niuean Niueans
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Norfolk Islander
Northern Ireland Northern Irish, British Northern Irish, Northern Irishmen/Northern Irishwomen, British
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Marianan Northern Marianans
Norway Norwegian Norwegians
Oman Omani Omanis
Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis
Palau Palauan Palauans
Palestine Palestinian Palestinians
Panama Panamanian Panamanians "Canaleros", "Istmeños", "Panas"
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean, Papuan Papua New Guineans, Papuans
Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans "Guaraníes"
Peru Peruvian Peruvians "Incas"
Philippines Filipino, Philippine Filipinos/Filipinas "Pinoys"
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islanders
Poland Polish Poles
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese "Tugas"
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans "Boricuas"
Qatar Qatari Qataris
Réunion Réunionese, Réunionnais Réunionese, Réunionnais/Réunionnaises
Romania Romanian Romanians
Russia[16] Russian Russians "Russkies" "Soviets"
Rwanda Rwandan Rwandans, Banyarwanda
Saba Saba Saba Dutch
Saint Barthélemy Barthélemois Barthélemois/Barthélemoises
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helenian Saint Helenians "Saints"
Saint Kitts and Nevis Kittitian or Nevisian Kittitians or Nevisians
Saint Lucia Saint Lucian Saint Lucians
Saint Martin Saint-Martinoise Saint-Martinois/Saint-Martinoises
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierrais or Miquelonnais Saint-Pierrais/Saint-Pierraises or Miquelonnais/Miquelonnaises
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincentian, Vincentian Saint Vincentians, Vincentians
Samoa Samoan Samoans
San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese
São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans
Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian Saudis, Saudi Arabians
Scotland Scottish, British Scot, Scotsmen, Scotswomen, na h-Alba
Senegal Senegalese Senegalese
Serbia Serbian Serbs, Serbians
Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois/Seychelloises
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans
Singapore Singapore, Singaporean[17][18] Singaporeans[17][18]
Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius, Statian Statians
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten Sint Maartener
Slovakia Slovak Slovaks
Slovenia Slovenian, Slovene Slovenes, Slovenians
Solomon Islands Solomon Island Solomon Islanders
Somalia Somali Somalis
Somaliland Somalilander Somalilanders
South Africa South African South Africans
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia or South Sandwich Islands none
South Ossetia (Region of Georgia) South Ossetian South Ossetians
South Sudan South Sudanese South Sudanese
Spain Spanish Spaniards several, including "Castellanos", "Gallegos"
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans
Sudan Sudanese Sudanese
Surinam Surinamese Surinamers
Svalbard Svalbard
Swaziland Swazi Swazis
Sweden Swedish Swedes
Switzerland Swiss Swiss
Syria Syrian Syrians
Tajikistan Tajikistani Tajikistanis, Tajiks
Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians
Thailand Thai Thai
Timor-Leste[19] Timorese Timorese "Maubere"
Togo Togolese Togolese
Tokelau Tokelauan Tokelauans
Tonga Tongan Tongans
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian or Tobagonian Trinidadians or Tobagonians "Trinis", "Trinbagonians"
Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians
Turkey Turkish Turks
Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Island Turks and Caicos Islanders
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans
Uganda Ugandan Ugandans
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians
United Arab Emirates Emirati, Emirian, Emiri Emiratis, Emirians, Emiri
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[20] British, UK Britons, British English, Englishmen/Englishwomen, Northern Irish, Northern Irishmen/Northern Irishwomen, Scots, Scotsmen/Scotswomen, Scottish, Welsh, Welshmen/Welshwomen
see Other words for "British"
United States of America United States, U.S., American[21] Americans[21] "Yankees/Yanks"
Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans "Charrúas"
Uzbekistan Uzbekistani, Uzbek Uzbekistanis, Uzbeks
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu, Vanuatuan Ni-Vanuatu
Vatican City State Vatican Vatican citizens
Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
Virgin Islands, British British Virgin Island British Virgin Islanders
Virgin Islands, United States U.S. Virgin Island U.S. Virgin Islanders
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna, Wallisian or Futunan Wallis and Futuna Islanders, Wallisians or Futunans
Western Sahara Sahrawi, Sahrawian, Sahraouian Sahrawis, Sahraouis
Yemen Yemeni Yemenis
Zambia Zambian Zambians
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans "Zimbos"

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Antarctica is the southernmost continent and not a country. The Antarctic Treaty System governs Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, and all territory south of the 60th parallel south.
  2. ^
  3. ^ The official name of Burma is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
  4. ^ The Republic of Cabo Verde was formerly known as Cape Verde.
  5. ^ a b The Republic of China was established in 1912 in the mainland China as the successor to the Qing dynasty and reclaimed Taiwan from the Empire of Japan in 1945. Following the Chinese Civil War in 1949, Kuomintang, the nationalist government was defeated by the Communist Party of China which caused the nationalists to flee to Taiwan and the communists establish the People's Republic of China. To this day, The People's Republic of China is simply known as "China" and the Republic of China is commonly known as "Taiwan" and occasionally, Chinese Taipei to prevent PRC pressure.
  6. ^ The Republic of Côte d'Ivoire was formerly known as the Ivory Coast.
  7. ^ a b The third syllable of Dominican (from Dominica) is stressed.
  8. ^ a b The second syllable of Dominican (from the Dominican Republic) is stressed.
  9. ^ East Timor is now officially known as the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.
  10. ^ The European Union is a politico-economic union of sovereign states.
  11. ^ a b The demonym European may be used to designate either a citizen of a member state of the European Union or a resident of the greater European subcontinent.
  12. ^ There is no adjective or demonym that distinguishes the Republic of Ireland from the entire island of Ireland. When distinction from Northern Ireland is necessary, the colloquial Southern Irish or Southerner is sometimes used; some people in the Republic of Ireland may find this offensive, though others in Northern Ireland may find it equally offensive in not distinguishing the Republic of Ireland from the island. As an alternative, an adjectival phrase may be used—for instance, "a law of the Republic of Ireland"—or, as a last resort, the name "Republic of Ireland" may be used as if it were an adjective (as in "a Republic of Ireland law").
  13. ^ The Ivory Coast is now officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire.
  14. ^ The official name of Myanmar is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, although the nation is still commonly known as Burma.
  15. ^ a b "Zelanian" is an archaism. It is encountered occasionally in historic contexts, but is never seen in modern usage.
  16. ^ The official name of Russia is the Russian Federation.
  17. ^ a b "Dictionary – Singapore / Singaporean". Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  18. ^ a b "Dictionary – Singapore". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  19. ^ The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste was formerly known as East Timor.
  20. ^ Also known as Great Britain or Britain.
  21. ^ a b Citizens of the United States of America are known as Americans, although any resident of the Americas may share this demonym. Many other names for United States citizens have been proposed to avoid confusion.

External links[edit]