List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions

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The following is a list of adjectival forms of former regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these former regions.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Name Adjective Demonym
Abyssinia Abyssinian Abyssinians
Acadia Acadian Acadians
Akkadia Akkadian Akkadians
Austria–Hungary Austro-Hungarian Austro-Hungarians, Austrians, Hungarians
Babylonia Babylonian Babylonians
Bessarabia Bessarabian Bessarabians
Biafra Biafran Biafrans
Burma Burmese Burmesea
Ceylon Ceylonese Ceylonese
Confederate States of America Confederate, CSA Confederates, Confederate Americans "Rebels", "Rebs"
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak, Czechb
(Czechoslovakian is incorrect, though frequent)
Czechoslovaks, Czechs, Slovaks
Dahomey Dahomeyan Dahomeyans
Elam Elamite, Elamitic, Elamitish Elamites
Katanga Katangese Katangese
Livonia Livonian Livonians, Livs
Manchuria Manchurian Manchurians
Malaya Malay, Malayan Malays, Malayans
Moldavia Moldavian Moldavians
Papal States Papal Papalini
Pomerania Pomeranian Pomeranians
Prussia Prussian Prussians
Rhodesia Rhodesian Rhodesians
Siam Siamese Siamese
Sudetenland Sudetes Sudetenlanders
Sumer Sumerian Sumerians
Soviet Union Soviet, Russianc Soviets, Russiansc
Transylvania Transylvanian Transylvanians
Two Sicilies Duosicilian Regnicoli
Wallachia Wallachian Wallachians
Yugoslavia Yugoslav Yugoslavs "Yugos" (Derogatory, Cold War Vintage)
Zaire Zairean Zaireans
Zululand Zulu Zulu, Zulus

a  Burma is also known as Myanmar.
b  "Czech" technically incorrect here, as it is also used to distinguish Czech people from Slovaks or other ethnic groups.
c  "Russian" technically incorrect here, as the Russian SFSR was one of fifteen Soviet Republics (albeit the largest).