List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions
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Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.
Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).
Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)
|Austria–Hungary||Austro-Hungarian||Austro-Hungarians, Austrians, Hungarians|
|Confederate States of America||Confederate, CSA||Confederates, Confederate Americans||"Rebels", "Rebs"|
(Czechoslovakian is incorrect, though frequent)
|Czechoslovaks, Czechs, Slovaks|
|Elam||Elamite, Elamitic, Elamitish||Elamites|
|Malaya||Malay, Malayan||Malays, Malayans|
|Soviet Union||Soviet, Russianc||Soviets, Russiansc|
|Yugoslavia||Yugoslav||Yugoslavs||"Yugos" (Derogatory, Cold War Vintage)|
a Burma is also known as Myanmar.