Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
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The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (Italian: Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica, abbreviated APSA) is the office of the Roman Curia that deals with the "provisions owned by the Holy See in order to provide the funds necessary for the Roman Curia to function" (Pastor Bonus, 172 as revised by Motu proprio on 8 July 2014). It was established by Pope Paul VI on 15 August 1967. The Ordinary Section, one of APSA's formerly two sections, was transferred to the Secretariat for the Economy by Motu proprio of Pope Francis on 8 July 2014. In its reduced form, APSA acts as the Treasury and central bank of Vatican City and the Holy See.
The assets entrusted to the Administration (previously in the care of what was its Extraordinary Section) were initially 750 million Italian lire (at that time equivalent to 8,152,000 pounds sterling) in cash and 1000 million Italian lire (at that time equivalent to 10,869,000 pounds sterling) in Italian State bonds, an amount less than Italy would have paid under the Law of Guarantees of 1871, if the Holy See had accepted this. According to an article by David Leigh in the Guardian newspaper, a 2012 report from the Council of Europe identified the value of a section of the Vatican's property assets as an amount in excess of €680m (£570m); as of January 2013, a papal official in Rome named Paolo Mennini manages this portion of the Holy See's assets—consisting of British investments, other European holdings and a currency trading arm. The Guardian newspaper described Mennini and his role in the following manner: "... Paolo Mennini, who is in effect the pope's merchant banker. Mennini heads a special unit inside the Vatican called the extraordinary division of APSA – Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica – which handles the so-called "patrimony of the Holy See"."
APSA was composed of two sections. The Ordinary Section continued the work of the Administration of the Property of the Holy See (Italian: Amministrazione dei Beni della Santa Sede), a commission that Pope Leo XIII set up in 1880, initially as an advisory body, and to which in 1891 he gave direct responsibility for administering the property remaining to the Holy See after the complete loss of the Papal States in 1870. The Extraordinary Section, the only section remaining after the 2014 reorganization, administers the funds given by the Italian government to implement the Financial Convention attached to the Lateran Treaty of 1929. Before the establishment of the APSA, these latter funds were managed by the Special Administration of the Holy See. After World War II, the International Monetary Fund recognized the Administration of the Property of the Holy See, as the central bank of Vatican City. An organizational chart of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, reflecting the pre-2014 organization and with the names of its senior officials, was given on the website of the Holy See, which also gave the regulations that govern its functioning. Before the 2014 change the heads ("Delegates") of the two sections were Massimo Boarotto for the Ordinary Section and Paolo Mennini for the Extraordinary.
Situation since 2014
On 9 July 2014, Cardinal George Pell, the Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy, announced that with the approval of Pope Francis, the Ordinary Section of APSA was transferred to the Secretariat for the Economy. He said this was an important step to enable the Secretariat for the Economy to exercise its responsibilities of economic control and vigilance over the agencies of the Holy See, including policies and procedures concerning purchasing and the suitable allocation of human resources. Cardinal Pell also announced that the remaining staff of APSA would begin to focus exclusively on the administration's role as a Treasury for the Holy See and the Vatican City State.  APSA was and is distinct from the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. As of 2015[update] Domenico Calcagno is the Cardinal President, assisted by the Secretary, Monsignor Mauro Rivella.
List of Presidents
- Nicola Canali (1951 - 1961)
- Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (7 May 1968 - 30 Apr 1969)
- Jean-Marie Villot (30 Apr 1969 - 28 Apr 1979)
- Giuseppe Caprio (28 Apr 1979 - 30 Jan 1981)
- Agostino Casaroli (30 Jan 1981 - 8 Apr 1984)
- Agnelo Rossi (8 Apr 1984 - 6 Dec 1989)
- Rosalio José Castillo Lara (6 Dec 1989 - 24 Jun 1995)
- Lorenzo Antonetti (24 Jun 1995 - 5 Nov 1998)
- Agostino Cacciavillan (5 Nov 1998 - 1 Oct 2002)
- Attilio Nicora (1 Oct 2002 - 7 July 2011)
- Domenico Calcagno (7 July 2011 - )
- Motu proprio of 8 July 2014 Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.).
- "New Economic Framework for the Holy See". Vatican Information Service. July 9, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- "New Coordination structure for the economic and administrative affairs of the Holy See and Vatican City State". Vatican Information Service. February 24, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- "Pope revolutionizes Vatican by opening finances to scrutiny". Reuters. February 24, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- The Times, 12 February 1929, "End of Roman Question".
- David Leigh (21 January 2013). "How the Vatican built a secret property empire using Mussolini's millions". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Annuario Pontificio 2012 (ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 1847. The same text is given on the website of the Holy See Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- Pollard, 2005, p. 200.