Administrative divisions of Brunei
The administrative divisions of Brunei mainly consist of daerah (district), mukim (county) and kampong (village). They are organised hierarchically, with daerah being the first level and kampong the third level.
There are also a few municipal divisions: Bandar Seri Begawan and a few district towns. They are considered to be outside of the hierarchy of the main administrative division.
All the administrative divisions are under direct governance of the government through the Ministry of Home Affairs. Generally, the administrative divisions serve for population census. The administrative areas have limited to no autonomy, and is more pronounced towards the lowest administrative level. The major socio-political aspects such as education and law are centralised and managed through separate government ministries or departments.
There are four districts in Brunei: Brunei-Muara, Belait, Tutong and Temburong. Brunei-Muara is the smallest district but has the most population. Belait is the largest district and the centre for the production of oil and gas.
A district is headed by a Pegawai Daerah or District Officer and assisted by an Assistant District Officer.
The administrative level of mukim lies below the district. At present, there are 38 mukims, with 17 in Brunei-Muara, 8 in Tutong, 8 in Belait and 5 in Temburong District. A mukim is headed by a penghulu.
A kampong is the lowest administrative level in Brunei and headed by a ketua kampong or village headman. Its population varies from a few hundreds to units of thousands.
Kampong Ayer is not considered a kampong administrative division. It is simply a common term in referring to the whole of the cluster of settlements on the Brunei River. However, Kampong Ayer is a large area which consists of a few mukim and a number of kampong.
There are four areas of population which are considered to be bandaran or municipality, namely:
- Bandar Seri Begawan, the country's capital; also the capital of Brunei-Muara District;
- Kuala Belait, the administrative town for Belait District;
- Seria, a town in Belait District; and
- Tutong, the administrative town for Tutong District.
The municipalities are considered outside of the hierarchy of the main administrative division, as their spatial jurisdiction do not necessarily fit to any of the levels, as well as their sizes are not consistent — Bandar Seri Begawan comprises several mukim but other towns comprise only a few kampong. Also, the municipalities are governed under different section from that which handles the districts and their subdivisions, although still within the same ministry.
The municipalities are headed by Pengerusi Lembaga Bandaran or Town Board Chairman.
While Bangar is the focal town of Temburong, it is yet to have a municipal status. Bangar, under the name 'Pekan Bangar' (literally translates as 'Bangar Town'), is at the level of kampong. Similarly, Muara, a settlement at the northern edge of Brunei-Muara District, is a kampong-level area, although its official name is 'Pekan Muara' which literally translates as 'Muara Town'.
- Road Map and Street Index of Brunei Darussalam. Brunei Shell Marketing Company. p. 32. ISBN 9991790101.
- Road Map and Street Index of Brunei Darussalam. Brunei Shell Marketing Company. p. 42. ISBN 9991790101.
- "Brunei-Muara District" (PDF). Information Department, Prime Minister's Office, Brunei Darussalam. 2010. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "Tutong District" (PDF). Information Department, Prime Minister's Office, Brunei Darussalam. 2013. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "Belait District" (PDF). Information Department, Prime Minister's Office, Brunei Darussalam. 2011. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "Temburong District" (PDF). Information Department, Prime Minister's Office, Brunei Darussalam. 2011. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "Kementerian Hal Ehwal Dalam Negeri, Negara Brunei Darussalam - Carta Organisasi". moha.gov.bn. Retrieved 2017-03-09.