ISIL territorial claims
لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله
"Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh"
"There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God.
دولة الإسلام باقية وتتمدد
Dawlat al Islam Baqiyah wa Tatamaddad
"The Islamic State remains and expands"
Designated as a terrorist organization
|Government||Unitary Islamic theocratic totalitarian "caliphate"|
• Self-proclaimed "caliph"
|Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi|
• Head of the Shura Council
|Abu Arkan al-Ameri|
|War on Terror|
• Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad
• Joined al-Qaeda
• Declaration of an Islamic State in Iraq
|13 October 2006|
• Claim of territory in the Levant
|8 April 2013|
• Separated from al-Qaeda
|3 February 2014|
• Declaration of "caliphate"
|29 June 2014|
|10 July 2017|
Claimed Islamic dinar|
de facto Iraqi dinar, Syrian pound
|Drives on the||right|
The core of the territory of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was from 2014 until November 2017 in Iraq and Syria, where the organization controlled significant swathes of urban, rural, and desert territory. ISIL also controls land in Yemen, Afghanistan, Libya, Nigeria, Egypt, and possibly Somalia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The group also has insurgent cells in Algeria, Iraq, Pakistan, Tunisia, the Caucasus, the Philippines and Saudi Arabia that do not control territory. As of October 2017, ISIS still holds 10,210 km2 of territory in Iraq and Syria, according to the US-led coalition against ISIS.
In early 2017, ISIL controlled approximately 45,377 square kilometers (17520 square miles) of territory in Iraq and Syria and 7,323 km2 of territory elsewhere, for a total of 52,700 km2. This represents a substantial decline from the group's territorial peak in late 2014, when it controlled between 100,000 km2 and 110,000 km2 of territory in total. ISIL's territory has declined substantially in almost every country since 2014, a result of the group's unpopularity and the military action taken against it. ISIL propaganda claims a peak territorial extent of 282,485 km2.
The majority of ISIL-controlled territory, though much-diminished, continues to be in eastern Syria, in addition to isolated pockets elsewhere in the country. The majority of the terrorist group's territory, population, revenue, and prestige came from the territory it held in Iraq and Syria. In Afghanistan, ISIL mostly controls territory near the Pakistan border and has lost 87% of its territory since spring 2015. In Libya, the group has lost nearly 100% of its territory, and as of 2017 controls only a handful of villages and neighborhoods. In Egypt, the group controls 910 km2 of land centered around the village of Sheikh Zuweid, which represents less than 1% of Egypt's territory. The terrorists control 6,041 km2 of territory in Nigeria, although the Nigerian government does not acknowledge the group as holding any land. The group has lost 75% of its Nigerian territory since 2014 and has fallen back to its strongholds in northeast Borno State.
- 1 Background
- 2 Overview
- 3 Specific territorial claims
- 4 References
- 5 Bibliography
- 6 External links
The 5th edition of ISIL's Dabiq magazine explained the group's process for establishing new provinces. Jihadist groups in a given area must consolidate into a unified body and publicly declare their allegiance to al-Baghdadi. The group must nominate a Wāli (Governor), a Shura Council (religious leadership), and formulate a military strategy to consolidate territorial control and implement ISIL's version of Sharia law. Once formally accepted, ISIL considers the group to be one of its provinces and gives it support. Dabiq has acknowledged support in regions including East Turkestan (Xinjiang), Indonesia and the Philippines, and claimed that ISIL would eventually establish wilayat in these areas after forming direct relationships with its supporters there.
ISIL Spokesman Abu Muhammad al-Adnani stated that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states and organizations becomes null by the expansion of the khilafah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas." ISIL thus rejects the political divisions established by Western powers during World War I in the Sykes–Picot Agreement as it absorbs territory in Syria and Iraq. The Long War Journal writes that the logical implication is that the group will consider preexisting militant groups like Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) illegitimate if they do not nullify themselves and submit to ISIL's authority.
While branches in Libya and Egypt have been very active and attempted to exercise territorial control, branches in other countries like Algeria and Saudi Arabia have been less active and do not seem to have a strong presence.
Since June 2015, there have been no further provinces officially announced by ISIL. This is despite the group receiving public pledges of allegiance from militants in countries like Somalia, Bangladesh and the Philippines, and subsequently releasing statements and videos from those regions through its official media channels. Analyst Charlie Winter speculates that this is due to the lackluster performance of many of ISIL's existing provinces, and that ISIL's leadership seems to be identifying new affiliates as simply "soldiers of the caliphate".
Specific territorial claims
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) is an active extremist Islamist rebel group and self-declared Caliphate in the Middle East that claims to be a sovereign state, and as such has made announcements of territorial control and aspirations of control. No other nation recognizes ISIL as a state. Its goal is the foundation of an Islamic state and a worldwide caliphate, in accordance with Salafi Islam, by the means of military jihad.
ISIL primarily claimed territory in Syria and Iraq, subdividing each country into multiple wilayah (provinces), largely based on preexisting governance boundaries. The first territorial claims by the group outside of Syria and Iraq were announced by its leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, on 13 November 2014, when he announced new wilayats, or provinces, in Libya (Wilayah Barqah, Wilayah Tarabulus, and Wilayah Fizan), Algeria (Wilayah al-Jazair), Egypt (Wilayah Sinai), Yemen (Wilayah al-Yaman), and Saudi Arabia (Wilayah al-Haramayn). In 2015, new provinces were also announced in the Afghanistan-Pakistan border (Wilayah Khorasan), Northern Nigeria (Wilayah Gharb Afrīqiyyah), and the North Caucasus (Wilayah al-Qawqaz).
Iraq and Syria
When the Iraq-based insurgent group Mujahideen Shura Council announced it was establishing an Islamic State of Iraq in October 2006, it claimed authority over seven Iraqi provinces: Baghdad, Al Anbar, Diyala, Kirkuk, Salah al-Din, Ninawa, and parts of Babil.
When the group changed its name to Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and expanded into Syria in April 2014, it claimed nine Syrian provinces, covering most of the country and lying largely along existing provincial boundaries: Al Barakah, Al Khayr, Raqqa, Homs, Halab, Idlib, Hamah, Damascus, and Latakia. It later subdivided the territory under its control to create the new provinces of al-Furat, Fallujah, Dijla, and al-Jazeera. On December 9, 2017 Iraqi military forces announced the war against ISIL in Iraq had been won and that they no longer controlled territory in Iraq. On June 2017 IS affiliate Khalid ibn al-Walid Army Started referring to themselves as "Wilayat Horan", one month later IS media started referring to all its claims in Syria as "Wilayat al-Sham".
ISIL divides Libya into three historical provinces, claiming authority over Barqa (or Cyrenaica) in the east, Fezzan in the desert south, and Tarabulus (or Tripolitania) in the west, around the capital.
In 2014, a number of leading ISIL commanders arrived in the city of Derna, which had been a major source of fighters in the Syrian Civil War and Iraq Insurgency. Over a number of months, they united many local militant factions under their leadership and declared war on anyone who opposed them, killing judges, civic leaders, local militants who rejected their authority, and other opponents. On 5 October 2014, the militants, who by then controlled part of the city, gathered to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. In February 2015, ISIL forces took over parts of the Libyan city of Sirte. In the following months, they used it as a base to capture neighbouring towns including Harawa, and Nofaliya. ISIL began governing Sirte and treating it as the capital of their territory.
ISIL suffered reversals from mid-2015 when they were expelled from much of Derna following clashes with rival militants, following months of intermittent fighting, ISIL eventually redeployed to other parts of Libya. Its leader Abu Nabil al Anbari was killed in a U.S. air strike in November 2015. Libya's Interim Government launched a major offensive against ISIL territory around Sirte in May 2016, capturing the city by December 2016.
The Egyptian militant group Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis swore allegiance to ISIL in November 2014. After al-Baghdadi's speech on 13 November, the group changed its name to Sinai Province on the Twitter feed claiming to represent the group. The group has carried out attacks in Sinai.
Al-Baghdadi announced a Wilayah in Saudi Arabia in November 2014, calling for the overthrow of the Saudi Royal Family and criticizing the Kingdom's participation in the US-led coalition against ISIL. The group has carried out attacks in the country under the names of Najd Province and Hejaz Province.
ISIL established a Yemeni Wilayah in November 2014. The branch's first attack occurred in March 2015, when it carried out suicide bombings on 2 Shia Mosques in the Yemeni capital. At least 7 ISIL Wilayat, named after existing provincial boundaries in Yemen, have claimed responsibility for attacks, including Hadhramaut Province, Shabwah Province and Sana'a Province. Following the outbreak of the Yemeni Civil War in 2015, ISIL struggled to establish much of a presence in the country in the face of competition from the larger and more established Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) militant group. Many of ISIL's regional cells in Yemen have not been visibly active since their establishment and the group has not been able to seize control of territory the way they have done in Iraq and Syria. The group has also experienced leadership turmoil and defections from its rank and file.
Members of a militant group named Jund al-Khilafah swore allegiance to ISIL in September 2014. ISIL in Algeria gained notoriety when it beheaded French tourist Hervé Gourdel in September 2014. On 13 November 2014, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi announced that the group had changed its name to "Wilayah al-Jazair" in accordance to the structure of the rest of groups aligned with ISIL. Algerian security forces killed the group's leader, Khalid Abu-Sulayman, in December 2014, and five of its six commanders in a May 2015 raid. Since then, the group has not claimed any significant attacks and has largely been silent.
On 29 January 2015, Hafiz Saeed Khan, Abdul Rauf and other militants in the region swore an oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Khan was subsequently named as the Wāli (Governor) of a new branch in Afghanistan and Pakistan called Khorasan Province, named after the historical Khorasan region.
ISIL attempted to establish themselves in Southern Afghanistan, especially in Kandahar and Helmand provinces, but were resisted by Taliban forces. They were able to establish a foothold in parts of Nangarhar, and recruited disaffected members of the Taliban. In August 2015, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan leader, Usman Ghazi, swore allegiance to ISIL and announced that the group should be considered part of Wilayah Khorasan.
The group suffered reversals in 2016, losing control of some territory in the wake of attacks from US Forces, the Afghan Government and the Taliban. Hafiz Saeed Khan was reportedly killed in a US drone strike in eastern Afghanistan on 25 July 2016.
On 7 March 2015, Boko Haram's leader Abubakar Shekau pledged allegiance to ISIL via an audio message posted on the organisation's Twitter account. Abu Mohammad al-Adnani welcomed the pledge of allegiance, and described it as an expansion of the group's caliphate to West Africa. ISIL publications from late March 2015 began referring to members of Boko Haram as part of Wilayat Gharb Afriqiya (West Africa Province). Boko Haram suffered significant reversals in the year following the pledge of allegiance, with an offensive by the Nigerian military, assisted by neighboring powers, driving them from much of the territory they had seized in North East Nigeria. Boko Haram suffered a split in 2016, with ISIL appointing 'Abu Musab al-Barnawi' as the group's new leader, due to disagreements with Abubakar Shekau's leadership. This was rejected by Shekau and his supporters, who continued to operate independently.
ISIL militants in Syria issued a threat to Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2014: "we will liberate Chechnya and the entire Caucasus, God willing. Your throne has already teetered, it is under threat and will fall when we come to you because Allah is truly on our side." In early 2015, commanders of the militant Caucasus Emirate group in Chechnya and Dagestan announced their defection and pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. In a June 2015 audio statement posted online, ISIL spokesman Abu Mohammad al-Adnani accepted the pledges of allegiance and appointed Abu Muhammad al-Qadari (Rustam Asildarov) as ISIL Governor of a new Caucasus Province. He called on other militants in the region to join with and follow al-Qadari. The group has carried out occasional, low-level attacks since then. Russian security services killed Rustam Asildarov in December 2016.
In February 2014, the Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem declared its support for ISIL. On 2 April 2015, elements of this group, along with members of the Army of Islam and the Gaza faction of Ansar Bait al-Maqdis, formed the Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade, also known as Islamic State in Gaza, as it predominantly operates in the Gaza Strip.
The Islamic State in Somalia (ISS) is active since 2015, and though it remains a small militia of around 300 fighters, it has been considered possible by experts that ISS controls a number of villages in Puntland's hinterland. Furthermore, the group managed to capture and hold the town of Qandala for over a month in late 2016. Despite this, ISS has not been acknowledged as official province by the ISIL central leadership.
Abu Sayyaf is ISIL's most powerful affiliate in the Philippines; another ISIL-affiliated group is the Maute group. Both groups worked together with other ISIL affiliates to seize parts of Marawi City in 23 May 2017, starting the Battle of Marawi.
On 16 October, ISIL's Emir of Southeast Asia Isnilon Hapilon, along with the Maute group's remaining leader Omar Maute was killed by the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Previously, the Maute group's co-leader and Omar's brother Abdullah Maute, as well as their other 5 male siblings, have been neutralized by the ongoing counter-offensives. 2 days after the leaders' death, the Armed Forces of the Philippines said that Malaysian terrorist and senior commander Mahmud Ahmad is also presumed killed in another operation.
The Battle of Marawi was declared over by 23 October by the government, at which point all participating militants have been successfully neutralized, effectively blocking ISIL's Asian expansion. The government wiped out the Maute group after the battle.
In December 2017, remnants of the Maute group started to recruiting new members in a new group called "Turaifie Group" with as leader, Abu Turaifie he calmed himself as successor of the former leader of Abu Sayyaf Isnilon Hapilon.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In October 2017, a video emerged on pro-ISIL channels that showed a small number of militants in the Democratic Republic of the Congo who declared to be part of the "City of Monotheism and Monotheists" (MTM) group. The leader of the group went on to say that "that this is Dar al Islam of the Islamic State in Central Africa" and called upon other like-minded individuals to travel to MTM territory in order to join the war against the government. The Long War Journal noted that though this pro-ISIL group in Congo appeared to be very small, its emergence had gained a notable amount of attention from ISIL sympathizers.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (28 January 2014). ""My Ummah, Dawn Has Appeared": Nasheed for the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham". Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Tomlinson, Lucas (21 April 2017). "ISIS moves its capital in Syria". Fox News. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "ISIS introduces 'Golden Dinar' currency, Hopes it will collapse U.S. dollar • The Foreign Desk". 6 July 2016.
- 'RAND: Rolling Back the Islamic State' Rolling Back the Islamic State
- RAND, Rolling back the Islamic State, page 11
- Harun Maruf (9 June 2017). "Somali Officials Condemn Attacks, Vow Revenge". Voice of America. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Caleb Weiss (15 October 2017). "Islamic State-loyal group calls for people to join the jihad in the Congo". Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- Shelly Kittleson (31 December 2017). "Iraqi forces hunt down IS remnants in Hamrin Mountains". al-Monitor. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- Eklund, Lina; Degerald, Michael; Brandt, Martin; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Pilesjö, Petter (28 April 2017). "How conflict affects land use: agricultural activity in areas seized by the Islamic State". Environmental Research Letters. 12 (5): 054004. Bibcode:2017ERL....12e4004E. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa673a.
- Al-Yaqeen Media. "Three Years on the Islamic State." Digital image, 11 June 2017. https://i.redd.it/i2id92mph33z.jpg
- Alessandria Masi (12 March 2015). "How The ISIS Allegiance Application Process Works For Groups Joining The 'Caliphate', Like Boko Haram". International Business Times. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Romain Caillet (December 2014). "ISIS'S GLOBAL MESSAGING STRATEGY FACT SHEET" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- Johnson, M. Alex (3 September 2014). "'Deviant and Pathological': What Do ISIS Extremists Really Want?". NBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Tran, Mark; Weaver, Matthew (30 June 2014). "Isis announces Islamic caliphate in area straddling Iraq and Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- McGrath, Timothy (2 July 2014). "Watch this English-speaking ISIS fighter explain how a 98-year-old colonial map created today's conflict". Los Angeles Times. GlobalPost. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Romain Caillet (27 December 2013). "The Islamic State: Leaving al-Qaeda Behind". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
- JOSCELYN, THOMAS. "Analysis: Islamic State snuff videos help to attract more followers". Long War Journal. Long War Journal. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Islamic State builds on al-Qaeda lands". BBC News. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "The Islamic State's Archipelago of Provinces". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "Islamic State in Somalia claims capture of port town". The Long War Journal. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "How Bangladesh Became Fertile Ground for al-Qa`ida and the Islamic State". CTC Sentinel. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "The Islamic State grows in the Philippines". The Long War Journal. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "Has the Islamic State Abandoned Its Provincial Model in the Philippines?". 22 July 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- "ISIS Governance in Syria." (PDF).
- US Congress. The ISIS Threat: The Rise of the Islamic State and their Dangerous Potential
- "The Islamic State's model". The Washington Post. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Islamic State leader urges attacks in Saudi Arabia: speech". Reuters.
We announce to you the expansion of the Islamic State to new countries, to the countries of the Haramayn, Yemen, Egypt, Libya [and] Algeria
- "ISIS Global Intelligence Summary March 1 - May 7, 2015" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War. 10 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- "ISIS Declares Governorate in Russia's North Caucasus Region". Institute for the Study of War. 23 June 2015.
- "The Rump Islamic Emirate of Iraq". The Long War Journal. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "ISIS' 'Southern Division' praises foreign suicide bombers". The Long War Journal. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "Middle East – تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية يعلن قيام "ولاية الفرات" على أراض سورية وعراقية – فرانس 24". France 24. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (10 September 2014). "Islamic State "Euphrates Province" Statement: Translation and Analysis". aymennjawad.org. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "The Islamic State" (PDF). The Soufan Group. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "Islamic State Announces Creation of Second New Province in Northern Iraq". SITE Intelligence Group. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "Islamic State Sprouting Limbs Beyond Its Base". The New York Times. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "ISIS atrocity in Libya demonstrates its growing reach in North Africa". CNN. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "Libyan city is first outside Syria, Iraq to join ISIS". Haaretz.com. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "The Islamic State of Libya Isn't Much of a State". Foreign Policy. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Hassan Morajea (6 June 2015). "Libyan gains may offer ISIS a base for new attacks". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- "IS said to have taken another Libyan town". Times of Malta. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- "The Islamic State's Burgeoning Capital in Sirte, Libya". Washington Institute of Near East Policy. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "ISIS shifts to Libya". The Washington Free Baecon. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "Libya officials: Jihadis driving IS from eastern stronghold". Associated Press. 30 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Islamic State in retreat around east Libyan city: military". Reuters. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- Martin Pengelly (14 November 2015). "Islamic State leader in Libya 'killed in US airstrike'". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Libyan security forces pushing Islamic State back from vicinity of oil terminals". www.reuters.com. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Libyan brigades capture air base from Islamic State south of Sirte: spokesman". 4 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016 – via Reuters.
- "Libyan forces clear last Islamic State hold-out in Sirte". Reuters. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- al-Shihri, Abdullah (7 August 2015). "Saudi Arabia mosque bombing that killed 15 claimed by 'new' Islamic State group". The Age. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- "Yemen crisis: Islamic State claims Sanaa mosque attacks". BBC News. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "ISIS Fails to Gain Much Traction in Yemen". The Wall Street Journal. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.(subscription required)
- "More Islamic State members reject governor of Yemen Province". Long War Journal. 28 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Fadel, Leila (18 November 2014). "With Cash And Cachet, The Islamic State Expands Its Empire". NPR.
- "If at First You Don't Succeed, Try Deception: The Islamic State's Expansion Efforts in Algeria". Jamestown Foundation. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- "IS announces expansion into AfPak, parts of India". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Pakistani Taliban emir for Bajaur joins Islamic State". The Long War Journal.
- "Afghanistan drone strike 'kills IS commander Abdul Rauf'". BBC News.
- "ISIS reportedly moves into Afghanistan, is even fighting Taliban". 12 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "ISIS, Taliban announced Jihad against each other". Khaama Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS 'haram'". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- Lynne O'Donnell (8 September 2015). "Islamic State group loyalists eye a presence in Afghanistan". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "IMU Declares It Is Now Part Of The Islamic State". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- "Air strikes hit Islamic State in Afghanistan under new rules: U.S." Reuters. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Taliban Captures IS Bases in Afghanistan". Voice of America. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- "IS leader in Afghanistan killed, US believes". BBC News. 12 August 2016.
- "Nigeria's Boko Haram pledges allegiance to Islamic State". BBC news. BBC. 7 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Adam Chandler (9 March 2015). "The Islamic State of Boko Haram? :The terrorist group has pledged its allegiance to ISIS. But what does that really mean?". The Atlantic.
- "IS welcomes Boko Haram allegiance: tape". AFP. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "Boko Haram's Buyer's Remorse". Foreign Policy Magazine. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Boko Haram in Nigeria: Abu Musab al-Barnawi named as new leader". BBC News. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- "Behind Boko Haram's Split: A Leader Too Radical for Islamic State". Wall Street Journal. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.(subscription required)
- Tharoor, Ishaan (6 September 2014). "Islamic State militants want to fight Putin". The Washington Post.
- "What Caused the Demise of the Caucasus Emirate?". Jamestown Foundation. 18 June 2015.
- "Caucasus Emirate and Islamic State Split Slows Militant Activities in North Caucasus". Jamestown Foundation. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "Two North Caucasus Rebel Leaders Face Off in Islamic State–Caucasus Emirate Dispute". The Jamestown Foundation. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "IS's North Caucasus Affiliate Calls For Recruits To Join It In Daghestan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Russian security service says killed North Caucasus Islamic State 'emir'". AFP. 4 December 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- al-Ghoul, Asmaa (27 February 2014). "Gaza Salafists pledge allegiance to ISIS". Al-Monitor. Gaza City, Gaza Strip. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Levy, Rachael (1 July 2014). "Egyptian group claims it killed the Three Israeli Teens". Vocative. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- "Egypt attack: Profile of Sinai Province militant group". BBC News. BBC Monitoring. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Levy, Rachael (9 June 2014). "ISIS: We Are Operating in Gaza". Vocative. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Warner (2017), p. 30.
- "Maute recruitment continues around Marawi - AFP". ABS-CBN Corporation. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
- Warner, Jason (2017). "Sub-Saharan Africa's Three "New" Islamic State Affiliates" (PDF). CTC Sentinel. 10 (1): 28–32.