Administrative divisions of India
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The Administrative divisions of India are Indian subnational administrative units; they compose a nested hierarchy of country subdivisions. Indian states and territories frequently use different local titles for the same level of subdivision (e.g., the Mandals of Andhra Pradesh correspond to Tehsils of Uttar Pradesh and other Hindi-speaking states and Talukas of Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu).
The States have been grouped into six zones having an Advisory Council to develop the habit of cooperative working” among these States. Five Zonal Councils were set up vide Part-III of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The North Eastern States' special problems are addressed by another statutory body - The North Eastern Council, created by the North Eastern Council Act,1971. The present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:
States and union territories
India is composed of 29 states and 7 union territories (including a national capital territory). The union territories are governed by administrators, appointed by the President of India. Two of the territories (Delhi and Puducherry) have been given partial statehood, with elected legislatures and executive councils of ministers, but limited powers.
|1||Andhra Pradesh||AP||Hyderabad (shared with Telangana for 10 years), Vijayawada  announced as capital after 10 years|
|8||Haryana||HR||Chandigarh (shared with Punjab, also a Union Territory)|
|10||Jammu and Kashmir||JK||Srinagar (summer), Jammu (winter)|
|21||Punjab||PB||Chandigarh (shared with Haryana, also a Union Territory)|
- Union territories
|A||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||AN||Port Blair|
|B||Chandigarh||CH||Chandigarh (also the capital of Haryana and Punjab)|
|C||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||DN||Silvassa|
|D||Daman and Diu||DD||Daman|
|F||National Capital Territory of Delhi||DL||New Delhi|
- See also:
Some of the states of India are divided into regions. The Regions of India are not official administrative divisions. They have no official administrative governmental status. They are purely geographic regions; some correspond to historic countries, states or provinces. A region may comprise one or more divisions, averaging about three divisions per region. However, the boundaries of the regions and the boundaries of the divisions do not always coincide exactly. So far there has been no movement to give the regions official administrative status. If this was to be done, it would presumably require that the boundaries of the regions be slightly modified so that they correspond exactly with their constituent districts.
Some of the Indian states are subdivided into divisions, each comprising several districts:
- Divisions of Assam
- Divisions of Bihar
- Divisions of Haryana
- Divisions of Jharkhand
- Divisions of Karnataka
- Divisions of Madhya Pradesh
- Divisions of Maharashtra
- Divisions of Punjab
- Divisions of Rajasthan
- Divisions of Uttar Pradesh
- Divisions of Uttarakhand
- Divisions of West Bengal
Tehsils, talukas, blocks or mandals (sub-districts but can also refer to division), headed by a Tehsildar or Talukdar, comprise several villages or village clusters. The governmental bodies at the Tehsil level are called the panchayat samiti.
States use varying names for their sub-districts. Detailed information is as follows:
|Jammu and Kashmir||Tehsil||59|
|Union Territory||Sub–district||Number of
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Tehsil||7|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Taluka||1|
|Daman and Diu||Taluka||2|
The block is often the next level of administrative division after the tehsil.
Villages are often the lowest level of subdivisions in India. The governmental bodies at the village level are called Gram Panchayat, of which there were an estimated 256,000 in 2002. Each Gram Panchayat covers a large village or a cluster of smaller villages with a combined population exceeding 500 Gram Sabha. Clusters of villages are also sometimes called Hobli or Patti.
Certain governmental functions and activities - including clean water availability, rural development, and education - are tracked at a sub-village level. These hamlets are termed "habitations". India is composed of approximately 1.6 million habitations. In some states, most villages have a single habitation; in others (notably Kerala and Tripura) there is a high ratio of habitations to villages.
A Municipality is an institution constituted for local self-government. The Governor of a State may declare, by public notification, any region of the State to be a “transitional area”, “a smaller urban area” or “a larger urban area" considering factors such as population, density of the population, revenue generated for local administration, the percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, and the economic importance of the area. A transitional area (an area in transition from a rural to an urban area) is administered by a Nagar Panchayat, a smaller urban area by a Municipal Council (Nagar Palika), and a larger urban area by a Municipal Corporation (Nagar Nigam). The territorial area administered by a municipality is called a municipal area. The Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Municipalities with such powers, authority and responsibilities to enable them to function as institutions of self-government,prepare plans for economic development and social justice, perform functions and implement schemes entrusted to them including those mentioned in the Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution. In addition, the Legislature of a State may grant additional powers to a Municipality such as the authority to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.
All the seats in a Municipality are filled by way of direct election, and for this purpose, each Municipal area is divided into territorial constituencies called Wards. The State Legislature can also appoint some members for the representation in a Municipality. At least one-third of the total number of seats in every Municipality is reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Further, one-third of the total number of seats including the seats reserved for SC/ST women shall be reserved for women and such seats may be allotted by rotation. The Legislature of a State may also provide for reservation of seats for backward class of citizens. The term of every Municipality, unless sooner dissolved, is 5 years. In case of dissolution, a Municipality is given a reasonable opportunity of being heard. A Municipal election must be completed before the expiry of its duration of 5 years, and in case of dissolution, 6 months from the date of its dissolution.
The Constitution also provides for the establishment of Wards Committees, consisting of one or more Wards, within the territorial area of a Municipality having a population of 3 lakhs or more. The Legislature of a State is empowered to make provision with respect to the composition and the territorial area of a Wards Committee; the manner of filling of the seats in a Wards Committee. Further a member of Municipality representing the Ward within the territorial area of the Wards Committee shall be a member of that Committee. Where a Wards Committee consists of one Ward, the member representing that Ward shall be the Chairperson of the Ward. In case it consists of two or more Wards, one of the members representing such Wards in the Municipality elected by the members of the Wards Committee, shall be the Chairperson of that Committee. Legislature is empowered to make provisions for the constitution of Committees in addition to the Wards Committees.
A metropolitan area is defined as an area having a population of 1 million or more, comprised in one or more districts and consisting of one or more Municipalities or Panchayats or other contiguous areas, specified by the Governor of a State to be a metropolitan area.
- Autonomous regions of India
- Indian states rankings
- Local Governance in India
- Cultural Zones of India
-  States and Union Territories of India - Source - Government of India Official Website
- "Appointed Day for Telangana State".
- "National Panchayat Directory". Ministry of Panchayati Raj. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "Statement showing the Nomenclature and Number of Sub-Districts in States/UTs". Office of The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, New Delhi. 2010–2011. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
- Indian Department of Drinking Water Supply
- Indian Department of Drinking Water Supply
- Indian Department of Education
- "Constitution Amendment in India" (PDF). Lok Sabha Secretariat. pp. 271–274. Retrieved 17 May 2015. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Explore places from India hierarchically leading to local information and geographic location on map
- Example of district with different subdivisions