Administrative divisions of Japan
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politics and government of
Japan is divided into 47 prefectural entities and these are further subdivided into sub-prefectural entities and/or directly into municipal entities which may further subdivide into sub-municipal wards.
- 1 Structural hierarchy
- 2 Prefectural divisions
- 3 Sub-prefectural divisions
- 4 Municipal divisions
- 5 Sub-municipal divisions
- 6 History
- 7 References
- 8 External links
|Municipal||"designated city"||政令指定都市||seirei shitei toshi||20|
|Town||町||chō or machi||746|
|Village||村||mura or son||183|
The top tier of administrative divisions are the 47 prefectural entities: 43 prefectures (県 ken?) proper, 2 urban prefectures (府 fu?, Osaka, and Kyoto), 1 "circuit" (道 dō?, Hokkaido), and 1 "metropolis" (都 to?, Tokyo). Although different in name they are functionally the same.
Tokyo is referred to as a "metropolis" (都 to?) after the dissolution of Tokyo City in 1943, Tōkyō-fu (Tokyo Prefecture) was upgraded into Tōkyō-to and the former Tokyo City's wards was upgraded into special wards.
Osaka Prefecture and Kyoto Prefecture are referred to as a "urban prefecture" (府 fu?). The Classical Chinese character from which this is derived implies a core urban zone of national importance.
"Prefecture" (県 ken?) are the most common types of prefectural divisions total of 43 ken. The Classical Chinese character from which this is derived carries a rural or provincial connotation.
There are only two types of Sub-prefectural divisions: Subprefecture and District.
Subprefectures (支庁 shichō?) are a Japanese form of self-government which focuses on local issues below the prefectural level. It acts as part of the greater administration of the state and as part of a self-government system.
The municipal divisions are divided into three main categories city, town, and village. However the city entities are further categorized. The Special wards of Tokyo are also consider as municipal divisions.
Cities in Japan are categorize into different four types from the highest designated city, core city, special city, and a regular city the lowest.
A city designated by government ordinance (政令指定都市 seirei shitei toshi?), also known as a designated city (指定都市 shitei toshi?) or government ordinance city (政令市 seirei shi?), is a Japanese city that has a population greater than 500,000 and has been designated as such by an order of the cabinet of Japan under Article 252, Section 19 of the Local Autonomy Law. Designated cities are also subdivided into wards.
A core city (中核市 Chūkakushi?) is a Japanese city that has a population greater than 300,000 and an area greater than 100 square kilometers, although special exceptions may be made by order of the cabinet for cities with populations under 300,000 but over 200,000. Core city was created by the first clause of Article 252, Section 22 of the Local Autonomy Law of Japan.
A city (市 shi?) is a local administrative unit in Japan with a population of at least 50,000 of which at least 60% of households must be established in a central urban area, and at least 60% of households must be employed in commerce, industry or other urban occupations. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns (町 machi?) and villages (村 mura?); the only difference is that they are not a component of districts (郡 gun?). Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947.
A town (町; chō or machi) is a local administrative unit in Japan. It is a local public body along with prefecture (ken or other equivalents), city (shi), and village (mura). Geographically, a town is contained within a prefecture.
A village (村 mura?, sometimes son) is a local administrative unit in Japan. It is a local public body along with prefecture (県 ken?, or other equivalents), city (市 shi?), and town (町 chō?, sometimes machi). Geographically, a village's extent is contained within a prefecture. It is larger than an actual settlement, being in actuality a subdivision of a rural district (郡 gun?), which are subdivided into towns and villages with no overlap and no uncovered area.
The special wards (特別区 tokubetsu-ku?) are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. Together, they occupy the land that was originally the City of Tokyo before it was abolished in 1943 to become part of the newly created Tokyo Metropolis. The special wards' structure was established under the Japanese Local Autonomy Law and is unique to Tokyo.
Although the details of local administration have changed dramatically over time, the basic outline of the current two-tiered system since the abolition of the han system by the Meiji government in 1871 are similar. Before the abolition of the han system Japan was divided into province (国 kuni?) then subdivided into district (郡 gun?) and then village (里/郷 sato?) at the bottom.
- Not inducing the 6 villages in the Kuril Islands dispute area.
- Imperial Japanese Commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. (1903). Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, p. 80.
- "Statistical Handbook of Japan 2008" by Statistics Bureau, Japan Chapter 17: Government System (Retrieved on July 4, 2009)