West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord
The Oslo II Accord divided the West Bank into three administrative divisions: the Areas A, B and C. The distinct areas were given a different status, according to the amount of self-government the local Palestinians would have over it through the Palestinian Authority, until a final status accord would be established.
The Areas A and B were choosen in such a way as to just contain Palestinians, by drawing lines around Palestinian population centers at the time the Agreement was signed; all areas surrounding the Areas A and B were defined as Area C. Area A comprises approximately 18% of the West Bank and Area B about 22%, together home to some 2,8 million Palestinians. As of 2013, some 300,000 Palestinians lived in Area C, scattered over 532 residential locations, while an estimated 350,000 Jewish settlers live in Area C in Israeli settlements and outposts. Area C is completely territorial contiguous. In contrast, the Areas A and B were subdivided into 165 separate units of land that have no territorial contiguity.
Area A (full civil and security control by the Palestinian Authority): initially, circa 3% of the West Bank, exclusive East Jerusalem (first phase, 1995). As of 2013, Area A formally comprised about 18% of the West Bank. The Israel Defense Forces, however, occasionally enters the area to conduct raids to arrest suspected militants. This area includes eight Palestinian cities and their surrounding areas (Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem, Qalqilya, Ramallah, Bethlehem, Jericho and 80 percent of Hebron), with no Israeli settlements. Entry into this area is forbidden to all Israeli citizens.
Area B (Palestinian civil control and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control): initially, circa 23-25% (first phase, 1995). As of 2013, Area B formally comprised about 22% of the West Bank. This area includes some 440 Palestinian villages and their surrounding lands, and no Israeli settlements.
Area C (full Israeli civil and security control): initially, circa 72-74% (first phase, 1995). Under the 1998 Wye River Memorandum, Israel would further withdraw from some additional 13% From Area C to Area B, which officially reduced Area C to circa 61% of the West Bank. Israel, however, withdrew from only 2%, and during Operation Defensive Shield, it reoccupied all territory. As of 2013, Area C formally comprised about 63% of the West Bank, including settlements, outposts and declared "state land".
Note: In negotiations, Israel has maintained the view that annexed East Jerusalem, no-man’s land and the Palestinian part of the Dead Sea are not part of Area C. This would decrease the proportional share of (the smaller) Area C, compared to the other Areas. On the other hand, an arbitrary square kilometer of the West Bank would comprise a higher percentage of the (decreased) total area of the West Bank.
While themselves excluded from the definition, all Israeli settlements, including those in and around East Jerusalem, are located in Area C. In 1972, there were 1,000 Israeli settlers living in what is now Area C. By 1993, their population had increased to 110,000. As of 2013, an estimated 350,000 Jewish settlers lived in Area C in Israeli settlements and outposts. In 2013, some 300,000 Palestinians lived in Area C, scattered over 532 residential locations. The majority of whom are Bedouin and farmers, constituting 5% of the Palestinian population, who are cut off from services available to other Palestinians in Areas A and B.
Oslo definition of Area C
Oslo II defines Area C as:
″areas of the West Bank outside Areas A and B, which, except for the issues that will be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations, will be gradually transferred to Palestinian jurisdiction in accordance with this Agreement″.
The issues that will be negotiated, according to Article XVII, are ″Jerusalem, settlements, specified military locations, Palestinian refugees, borders, foreign relations and Israelis; and ... powers and responsibilities not transferred to the Council″. Parts of Area C are military area closed for Palestinians.
Transfer of Area C
Part of Area C was intended to be handed to Palestinians by the end of 1999. Israel promised to redeploy its troops from Areas A and B before the elections. After the inauguration of an elected Palestinian parliament, the Israeli Civil Administration would be dissolved and the Israeli military government be withdrawn. The Council would get some powers and responsibilities.
Within 18 months from the date of inauguration, Israel would further redeploy military forces from Area C in three phases, however, without transfer of any sovereignty to the Palestinians:
″The Council will assume powers and responsibilities for civil affairs, as well as for public order and internal security, according to this Agreement″.
″1. Israel shall transfer powers and responsibilities as specified in this Agreement from the Israeli military government and its Civil Administration to the Council in accordance with this Agreement. Israel shall continue to exercise powers and responsibilities not so transferred.″
″5. After the inauguration of the Council, the Civil Administration in the West Bank will be dissolved, and the Israeli military government shall be withdrawn. The withdrawal of the military government shall not prevent it from exercising the powers and responsibilities not transferred to the Council.″
The military forces would be redeployed in "specified military locations" in the West Bank, to be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations within 18 months. The Legislative Council was elected in January 1996.
Use of Area C
Area C, 99% of which is excluded from Palestinian use, contains most of the West Bank’s natural resources and open spaces, access to which, according to the World Bank, would enable the Palestinians to halve their budget deficit and lead to an expansion of their economy by a third. According to Danny Rubinstein: "Much land in Area C is undeveloped. Israel, however, does not permit Palestinian construction for residential, commercial or industrial purposes."
70 percent of the area is defined as within settler municipal boundaries, where permits for development are denied to Palestinians. The World Bank estimates that the effect has been to cause a potential loss of $14 billion of revenue for the Palestinian economy.
Israel has made over 14,000 demolition orders against Palestinian-owned structures in Area C since 1988. Israeli planning there allocates 13 times more space to Israeli settlers than to Palestinians there, according to the United Nations. Israeli settlers have been allocated about 790 square meters per capita, whereas Palestinians have been allocated about 60 square meters per capita.
According to a 2013 EU report, Israeli policies in the area have undermined the Palestinian presence there, with a deterioration in basic services such as water supplies, education and shelter. Nearly 70% of the Palestinian villages are not connected to the water network that serves settlers, which accounts for the fact that Palestinians in the zone use only a quarter to a third of the pro capita consumption of settlers.
Palestinians cannot build in Area C without an army permit; however, building applications are expensive and have a 5% approval rate. As a result, most Palestinians who build there do so illegally. Israel demolishes about 200 buildings per year in Area C.
Alleged violation of the Accords
Area B is defined as land under Palestinian civil control and Israeli military control. According to Dror Etkes, Israeli settlers have violated the accords by spreading into Area B and seizing private Palestinian land for cultivation and settlement. Examples he cites are the Amona settlement, overlooking Ofra, where he argues that land belonging to villagers of Deir Dibwan has been taken for redevelopment; the settlement of Itamar he says has seized control of land and resources belonging to the Area B villages of Yanun, Awarta and Einabus; he states that settlers have seized Area B land near Esh Kodesh and Mitzpeh Ahiya east of Shilo; and he states that settlers of Ma'ale Rehav'am have built in a nature reserve established under the Wye River Memorandum.
The Palestinian side (later to become the Palestinian Authority) agreed to ensure free access to a specific list of Jewish religious sites located in Areas A and B as specified in the 1995 Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, but due to the uncertain security situation, the Israel Defense Forces limits visits by Jews to rare occasions. In Area C, Palestinians were given the right to visit al-Maghtas on the Jordan River and to Nabi Musa.
- What is Area C?. B'Tselem, 9 October 2013
- "Estimated Population in the Palestinian Territory Mid-Year by Governorate,1997-2016". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. State of Palestine. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- UN: 300,000 Palestinians live in Area C of the West Bank. Jerusalem Post, 6 March 2014
- "West Bank and Gaza - Area C and the future of the Palestinian economy". World Bank. 2 October 2013. pp. xi, 4.
- Gvirtzman, Haim. "Maps of Israeli Interests in Judea and Samaria Determining the Extent of the Additional Withdrawals". (this study was funded by the Settlement Division of the Zionist Organization)
- The demise of the Oslo process. Joel Beinin, MERIP, 26 March 1999.
In area B, consisting of about 23 percent of the territory (including some 440 villages and their surrounding lands), the Palestinians are responsible for certain municipal functions, while joint Israeli-Palestinian patrols maintain internal security. Area C, consisting of about 74 percent of the territory including all of the 145 settlements and the new Jewish neighborhoods in and around East Jerusalem, remains under full Israeli control.
- MFA, Map No. 1 - First Phase of Redeployment
- New York Times, 23 July 2012, Israel Seeks Army Use of West Bank Area
- West Bank: Area C Map. UNISPAL, 22 February 2011; from OCHAoPt
- Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, Article I Transfer of Authority; Article XI Land, par. 3. 28 September 1995 Retrieved from the Knesset website on 6 November 2013.
- Ron Pundak 'Decoding Bibi's West Bank agenda,' at Haaretz, 3 August 2012.
- Annex I: Protocol Concerning Redeployment and Security Arrangements, Article I—Redeployment of Israeli Military Forces and Transfer of Responsibility. Retrieved from the Knesset website on 6 November 2013
- Associated Press, 'Palestinians lose billions to Israeli land bans, says World Bank report,' The National, October 8, 2013:“Without the ability to conduct purposeful economic activity in Area C, the economic space of the West Bank will remain crowded and stunted, inhabited by people whose daily interactions with the state of Israel are characterised by inconvenience, expense and frustration.”
- Danny Rubenstein, The Palestinian economy: Israel's control over Area C comes at a price. Ynet, 9 February 2015.
- Dalia Hatuga, 'Report reveals scale of Israel's home demolitions,' Al Jazeera 7 September 2015
- 'Palestinians in West Bank's Area C suffer in limbo,' at Los Angeles Times, May 18, 2013.
- Diab, Khaled (6 September 2012). "Bedouin kids' school of hard knocks". Haaretz. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "West Bank settlements: Bulldozers at the ready". The Economist. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Haaretz, Akiva Eldar, West Bank outposts spreading into Area B, in violation of Oslo Accords. 18 February 2012.
- Interim Agreement Annex III: Protocol Concerning Civil Affairs.