Admiral (Germany)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Naval Ensign of Germany.svg
Admiral
MDS 64 Admiral Trp.svg MDJA 64 Admiral Trp Lu.svg MA OG5 64 Admiral.svg
shoulder board / cuff title / mounting loop
Rank insignia German officer rank
Introduction
Rank group Commissioned officers
Navy Admiral
Army / Air Force General (Germany)
NATO
equivalent
OF-9
Army General
Navy Admiral

Admiral, short Adm, (en: Admiral) is the most senior flag officer rank in the German Navy. It is equivalent to General (Germany) in the German Army or German Air Force. In the Central Medical Services there is no equivalent. In the German Navy Admiral is, as in many navies, a four-star rank with a NATO code of OF-9. There is currently one admiral in the German Navy, Admiral Manfred Nielson, serving as Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Transformationin Norfolk, Virginia.

However, in other German speaking naval forces, e.g. Imperial German Navy, Reichsmarine, Kriegsmarine, Volksmarine, and the Austro-Hungarian K.u.K. Kriegsmarine, Admiral was an OF-8 three-star flag officer rank.

Address[edit]

The official manner of formal addressing of military people with the rank Admiral (OF-9) is "Herr/Frau Admiral". However, as to German naval traditions the addressing in seamen´s language of military people with any flag officer rank (OF-6 to OF-9) is "Herr/Frau Admiral". In the Imperial German Navy, an Admiral would be addressed as "Eure Exzellenz" (Your Excellency)[1]

Rank insignia and rating[edit]

Its rank insignia, worn on the sleeves and shoulders, are one five-pointed star above a big gold stripe and three normal stripes (without the star when rank loops are worn).

The rank is rated OF-9[2] in NATO, and equivalent to General in Heer, and Luftwaffe. It is grade B10 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence.

Bundeswehr Logo Marine with lettering.svg
German Navy officer rank
junior rank
Vizeadmiral
Admiral
General
senior rank
No

The sequence of ranks (top-down approach) in that particular group is as follows:

History of Admiral ranks in Germany[edit]

German navies until 1945[edit]

Admiral as a rank first appeared in Germany in the 19th century and was expanded in the early 20th century as part of a build-up and mobilization in preparation for the First World War. The rank again saw a resurgence during the Second World War. There were many famous German Admirals during these formative years of German naval power, among them Otto von Diederichs, Gustav von Senden-Bibran, Georg Alexander von Müller, August von Heeringen, Alfred von Tirpitz and (later) Karl Dönitz.

The ranks of the German admiralty were based on those from other European Powers, with some modifications in the titles and pronunciation. The German navy also never considered Commodore a rank of the admiralty, as this rank has always been considered more of a senior Captain. However, in the Nazi Wehrmacht Admiral was a three-star flag officer rank, comparable to modern armed forces OF-8 grade, and equivalent to General of the branch in Heer and Luftwaffe.

Junior rank
Vizeadmiral
 Nazi Germany
(Ranks Kriegsmarine)
Admiral
General of the branch
Senior rank
Generaladmiral

In 1944, the ranks of the German Kriegsmarine were in order of seniority as follows, US equivalent in brackets:[4]

Admiral ranks of the German Kriegsmarine in 1944
Rank Großadmiral
(GrsAdm)
Generaladmiral
(GenAdm)
Admiral
(Adm)
Vizeadmiral
(VAdm)
Konteradmiral
(KAdm)
Epaulette
Kriegsmarine-Großadmiral (s).svg
Kriegsmarine epaulette Generaladmiral.svg
Kriegsmarine epaulette Admiral.svg
Kriegsmarine epaulette Vizeadmiral.svg
Kriegsmarine epaulette Konteradmiral.svg
Sleeve lace
Kriegsmarine-Großadmiral.png
Kriegsmarine-Generaladmiral.png
Kriegsmarine-Generaladmiral.png
Kriegsmarine-Vizeadmiral.png
Kriegsmarine-Konteradmiral.png
Command flag Kriegsmarine OF10-Grossadmiral-Flag 1945.svg Kriegsmarine OF9-Generaladmiral-Flag 1945 v2.svg Admiral.svg Vizeadmiral.svg Konteradmiral.svg
Equivalent Admiral of the Navy Admiral Vice Admiral Rear admiral (uh) Rear admiral (lh)
NATO equivalent OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6

Commodore / Rear admiral (Lower Half)
The Kaiserliche Marine did not use an admiral rank junior to Konteradmiral. Its successor, the Kriegsmarine, used the rank of Kommodore. However a Kommodore was not a part of the Admiralty but more a senior captain in command of a squadron.

K.u.K. Kriegsmarine[edit]

In the Austro-Hungarian K.u.K. Kriegsmarine (from 1849 to 1918) there were the flag-officer ranks Kontreadmiral (in the 20th century also Konteradmiral), Viceadmiral , and Admiral, as well as Großadmiral.

Admiral ranks of the K.u.K. Kriegsmarine in 1918
K.u.K. Großadmiral K.u.K. Admiral K.u.K. Viceadmiral K.u.K. Konteradmiral
OF-10 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6
K.u.K Großadmiral.jpg K.u.K. Admiral.jpg K.u.K. Vizeadmiral.jpg Kontreadmiral ( Österreich-Ungarn).png
Österreich Großadmiral 1915.svg
Flag of an Austro-Hungarian Admiral (1915).svg
Flag of an Austro-Hungarian Vice-Admiral (1915).svg
Flag of an Austro-Hungarian Rear Admiral (1915).svg
Admirals of the K.u.K Kriegsmarine

Coat of arms of the Austro-Hungarian Navy.png

Rank Name Remark
Admiral Friedrich von Pöck Marinkommandant 1871–1883
Admiral Daublebsky von Sterneck Marinkommandant 1883–1897
Admiral Hermann von Spaun Marinkommandant 1897–1904
Admiral Maximilian Njegovan Marinekommandant, Flottenkommandant

National People´s Army[edit]

GDR-Admiral Wilhelm Ehm and Vizeadmiral Gustav Hesse (1979)

Admiral was the second highest flag officer grade of the Volksamrine, equivalent to the three-star rank Generaloberst.

In the GDR Volksmarine there have been the three flag officer ranks Konteradmiral, Vizeadmiral, and Admiral. By decision of the GDR State Council from March 25, 1982, the rank Flottenadmiral was introduced.

Flag officers of the Volksmarine
OF-9 to 6 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6
Arabesques Lampasse Flottenadmiral Admiral Vizeadmiral Konteradmiral
GDR Navy Arab OF6-9.jpg
Spod 6pul.png
GDR Navy OF9 Flottenadmiral.gif
GDR Navy OF8 Admiral.gif
GDR Navy OF7 Vizeadmiral.gif
GDR Navy OF6 Konteradmiral.gif
Cuff title
VM Aermelstreifen 3-4 Flottenadmiral.svg
VM Aermelstreifen 3-3 Admiral.svg
VM Aermelstreifen 3-2 Vizeadmiral.svg
VM Aermelstreifen 3-1 Konteradmiral.svg
Command flags
Flag of minister of defence (admiral) - East Germany.svg
Flag of admiral of VM (East Germany).svg
Flag of vice admiral of VM (East Germany).svg
Flag of rear admiral of VM (East Germany).svg
Admirals of the GDR Volksmarine
Rank Name Remark
Admiral Verner, Waldemar 1914-1982
Admiral Ehm, Wilhelm 1918-2009
Admiral Hoffmann, Theodor 1935-

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brockhaus (1911) s.v. Titulaturen
  2. ^ STANAG 2116
  3. ^ The abbreviation "OF" stands for de: "Offizier / en: officer / fr: officier / ru: офицер"
  4. ^ http://www.themarshalsbaton.com/Navy%20Admiral%20Insignia.htm

See also[edit]