Adnan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Adnan
Map of Arabia 600 AD.svg
Approximate locations of certain tribes of Arabia, including those descended from Adnan, e.g. Hawazin and Quraysh
Known for Ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and being the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite arabs
Children Ma'ad ibn Adnan
Akk ibn Adnan
Parent(s) Udad (father)

Adnan (Arabic: عدنان‎‎) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtanite Arabs of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.[1]

Origin[edit]

According to tradition, Adnan is the father of a group of the Ishmaelite Arabs who inhabited West and Northern Arabia; he is a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham. Adnan is believed by Arab genealogies to be the father of many Ishmaelite tribes along the Western coast of Arabia, Northern Arabia and Iraq.[2][3][4][5]

Some Arab historians[who?] have proposed his ancestry as thus: Adnan ibn Aa'd ibn U'dud ibn Sind ibn Ya'rub ibn Yashjub ibn Nabeth ibn Qedar[6] ibn Ishmael[7][7][8] ibn Abraham[9] ibn Azar[10][11] (Terah) ibn Nahur[12] ibn Serug[13] ibn Reu[14] ibn Peleg[15] ibn Eber ibn Salah[16][17][18] ibn Arpachshad[19] ibn Shem ibn Noah ibn Lamech[20] ibn Methuselah ibn Idris (Enoch) ibn Jared ibn Mahalalel ibn Kenan ibn Enos ibn Seth ibn Adam.

Many family trees have been presented by Adnan, which did not agree about the number of ancestors between Ishmael and Adnan but agreed about the names and number of the ancestors between Adnan and the Prophet Muhammad.[21][22]

The overwhelming majority of traditions and Muslim scholars state that Adnan is a descendant of Kedar the son of Ishmael,[5][23][24][25][26] except for Ibn Ishaq who claimed that Adnan was a descendant of Nebaioth,[27] this confusion of Ibn Ishaq can be because one of the descendants of Kedar was also named "Nebaioth".[28]

Most of Muslim scholars refused any attempt to recite the ancestors between Adnan to Ishmael, and condemned some other scholars such as Ibn Ishaq for doing it.[2][29][30][31][32]

Family[edit]

The Adnanite Arab family tree, created from "The Life of Mohammad" by Ibn Hisham

Adnan had two sons, Ma'ad ibn Adnan and Akk ibn Adnan. Akk dwelt in the Yaman because he took a wife amongst the Asharites and lived with them, adopting their language. The Asharites were descend from Saba' ibn Yashjub ibn Ya'rub ibn Qahtan.[33]

In Pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

Adnan was mentioned in various Pre-Islamic poems, such as the Pre-Islamic poets: "Lubayb Ibn Rabi'a" and "Abbas Ibn Mirdas".[34]

Adnan was viewed by Pre-Islamic Arabs as an honorable father among the fathers of Arab tribes, and they used this ancestry to boast against other Qahtani tribes who were a minority among the Adnanites.[35]

"Layla Bent Lukayz", a Pre-Islamic female poet, was captured by a Persian king and forced to marry him, so she composed a poem designated to other Arab tribes, asking for their help and reminding that she and them all belong to Adnan, which makes it a duty for them to rescue her.[36]

In other poems such as the ones composed by the Pre-Islamic poet "Qumma'a Ibn Ilias", it appears that Arabs considered it as a "Honor" to be a descendant of Adnan, and for some reason they appear to have been proud of it.[37]

In North Arabian Inscriptions[edit]

The name of Adnan was found many times in various Thamudic inscriptions, but with few details. In some Nabataean inscriptions, Adnan seems to hold some kind of importance or venerability, to the extent that some Nabataean people were named after him as "Abd Adnon" (The Servant/Slave of Adnan). There is no particular indication that he was worshiped, except as an honorable figure, exactly as some other Arabs called some of their sons as "servants" of their fore-fathers.[38][39][40]

Death[edit]

Adnan died after Nebuchadnezzar II returned to Babylon. After Adnan's death, his son Ma'ad moved away to the region of Central-Western Hijaz after the destruction of the Qedarite kingdom near Mesopotamia, and the remaining Qedarite Arabs there were displaced from their lands and forced to live in Al-Anbar province and on the banks of the Euphrates river under the rule of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.[41][42][43][44]

Descent from Adnan to Muhammad[edit]

According to Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad was descended from Adnan. "The following is the list of chiefs who are said to have ruled the Jazeera and to have been the intraline ancestors of Muhammad."[45]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charles Sanford Terry (1911). A Short History of Europe, From the fall of the Roman empire to the fall of the Eastern empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1112467356. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b al Mughiri, Abd al-Rahman. The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes Volume 1. p. 58. 
  3. ^ Al Azzawi, Abbas. Clans of Iraq Volume 1. p. 13. 
  4. ^ Kathir, Ibn. Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya (The Beginning and the End) Volume 2. p. 187. 
  5. ^ a b Ahmad al-Qalqashandi. Fulfilling the need of Knowing the origins of Arabs Volume 1. p. 118. 
  6. ^ Book of Genesis 25:12-16
  7. ^ a b Ishmael, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  8. ^ Azraqi, Akhbar Makkah, vol. 1, pp. 58-66
  9. ^ Qur'an 2:127 to 136
  10. ^ Qur'an 6:74
  11. ^ Qur'an 37:99–111
  12. ^ Luke 3:35
  13. ^ Book of Genesis11:20-23
  14. ^ Genesis 11:20
  15. ^ Genesis 10:25
  16. ^ Genesis 10:24
  17. ^ Genesis 11:12-13
  18. ^ Luke 3:36
  19. ^ Book of Genesis 10:22, 24; 11:10-13; 1 Chron. 1:17-18
  20. ^ Luke 3:37
  21. ^ Al-Fusool Fe Sirat Ar-Rasul. p. 87. 
  22. ^ al Mughiri, Abd al-Rahman. The chosen record of the Ancestries of Arab tribes Volume 1. p. 60. 
  23. ^ Ibn Wahaf Al-Qahtani, Dr.Sa'eed. Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen Volume 2. pp. 14–17. 
  24. ^ Ahmad al-Qalqashandi. Qala'ed Al-Joman Volume 1. p. 31. 
  25. ^ Abu Shaba, Dr. Mohammad. Al-Isra'eliyyat Wa Al-Mawdu'at Fe Kutub At-Tafsir. p. 259. 
  26. ^ Ibn Kathir. Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya (The Beginning and the End) Volume 3. p. 203. 
  27. ^ Siratu Rasulillah, Volume 1, Page 1
  28. ^ Tareekh At-Tabari. p. 517. 
  29. ^ Uyoon Al-Athar Volume 1. p. 33. 
  30. ^ Ibn Kathir. Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya (The Beginning and the End) Part 23. p. 246. 
  31. ^ Ahmad al-Qalqashandi. Qala'ed Al-Juman. p. 14. 
  32. ^ Ibn Kathir. As-Sira An-Nabaweyya Part 1. p. 75. 
  33. ^ Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press. p. 4. 
  34. ^ Ali, Prof. Jawwad. The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam Volume 1. p. 393. 
  35. ^ Ali, Prof. Jawwad. The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam Volume 1. p. 372. 
  36. ^ Yamit Al-Bayrouti, Bashir (1934). The Arab Female Poets during the "Jahiliyyah" and Islamic eras. p. 33. 
  37. ^ Abu Al-Hasan Al-Maroudi. A'lam An-Nobouwwah. p. 215. 
  38. ^ Mission des PP. Jaussen et Savignac en Arabie "Hedjaz" Vol. 38. 1910. p. 328. 
  39. ^ G. Strenziak (1953). Die Genealogle der Nordaraber nach Ibn Al-Kalbi Vol. 1. p. 210. 
  40. ^ Ali, Prof. Jawwad. The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam Volume 1. p. 380. 
  41. ^ Ali, Prof. Jawwad. The Detailed History of Arabs before Islam Volume 5. pp. 160–161. 
  42. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. The History of Nations and Kings Volume 1. p. 327. 
  43. ^ Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi. The Organized History of Nations Volume 1. p. 408. 
  44. ^ Yaqut Al-Hamawi. The Dictionary of Countries Volume 3. pp. 377–380. 
  45. ^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1995) [First published 1885]. A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopaedia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, Together With the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-206-0672-2. Retrieved 2010-07-24.