Adobe Creative Suite
|Initial release||September 1, 2003|
Creative Suite 6 / May 7, 2012
|Operating system||Windows, OS X|
|Platform||IA-32 (limited), PowerPC (limited), x64|
|Type||Digital media creation and editing|
Adobe Creative Suite (CS) is a software suite of graphic design, video editing, and web development applications developed by Adobe Systems. Each edition consists of several Adobe applications, e.g., Photoshop, Acrobat, Premiere Pro or After Effects, InDesign, and Illustrator are the industry standard applications for many graphic design positions.
The last version, Adobe Creative Suite 6 (CS6), was launched at a release event on April 23, 2012, and released on May 7, 2012. On May 6, 2013 Adobe announced that CS6 would be the last version of the Creative Suite, and that future versions of their creative software would only be available via their Adobe Creative Cloud subscription service. Adobe also announced that it would continue to support CS6 and would provide bug fixes and security updates through the next major upgrades of both Mac and Windows operating systems (as of 2013). The Creative Suite packages were pulled from Adobe's online store, but still remain available via a section of their website.
The following are brief description of the core applications in the various Adobe Creative Suite editions. Each edition may come with all or subset of these apps.
- Adobe Acrobat creates, edits and manages documents in Portable Document Format (PDF).
- Adobe After Effects is a digital motion graphics and compositing software published by Adobe Systems. It is often used in film and video post-production.
- Adobe Audition is a digital audio editor. It has more editing features than its sibling, Adobe Soundbooth.
- Adobe Bridge is an image organizer and digital asset management app. It features limited integration with other Adobe apps but has no editing capabilities of its own.
- Adobe Contribute is an HTML editor and a content management system. It allows a wide variety of people within an organization to update web pages.
- Adobe Device Central helps preview and test web pages, raster image and digital video content for mobile devices.
- Adobe Dreamweaver is an HTML editor geared towards professional web development.
- Adobe Dynamic Link integrates After Effects with Premiere Pro and with Encore, allowing files to be transferred between the two without rerendering.
- Adobe Encore is a specialized transcoding app; it converts the output of Adobe Premiere and Adobe After Effects to a format suitable for DVD and Blu-ray players. Files are automatically transcoded to MPEG-2 or H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video and Dolby Digital audio. DVD and Blu-ray menus can be created and edited in Adobe Photoshop using layering techniques.
- Adobe Fireworks is a discontinued raster graphics editor for web designers. It could create interactive contents (e.g. buttons that change shape when the mouse cursor is hovered on) and animations.
- Adobe Flash Professional, a multimedia authoring program used to create web apps, flash games, films and mobile widgets in the eponymous Adobe Flash format. Its features include a scripting language called ActionScript and bi-directional streaming of digital audio and video.
- Adobe Flash Catalyst, an interaction design tool that allow users to transform Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, and Fireworks artwork into interactive Adobe Flash projects without writing code. Flash Catalyst was discontinued in 2012 (CS 5.5) and not included in CS 6.
- Adobe Flash Builder, formerly Adobe Flex Builder, is an integrated development environment (IDE) built on the Eclipse platform meant for developing rich Internet applications (RIAs) and cross-platform desktop applications in the Adobe Flash format.
- Adobe GoLive is a discontinued HTML editor geared towards professional web development. It was discontinued in favor of Adobe Dreamweaver.
- Adobe Illustrator is a vector graphics editor geared towards print publications.
- Adobe ImageReady is a discontinued raster graphics editor for web designers. It was discontinued in favor of Fireworks.
- Adobe InDesign is a desktop publishing application.
- Adobe Media Encoder is a general-purpose transcoding app.
- Adobe OnLocation is a direct-to-disk recording and monitoring software.
- Adobe Prelude is a tool for importing (ingesting), reviewing, and logging tapeless media.
- Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor. A large portion of its features are geared towards editing and retouching digital photographs. However, it is also capable of editing digital video frames, rendering text, 3D modeling and developing contents for web.
- Adobe Premiere Pro is a real-time, timeline-based video editing app. Premiere is optimized for working on computers with more than one CPU, graphic cards and computer monitors. Its supports the contemporary digital camera and capture card feeds, as well as their file formats, as input.
- Adobe Soundbooth is digital audio editor. It has fewer capabilities than its sibling, Adobe Audition.
- Adobe SpeedGrade is a color grading app that integrates with Adobe Premiere
- Adobe Story is a screenwriting, production scheduling and reporting app.
- Adobe Ultra is a discontinued chroma key compositing app; it removes the background of video usually recorded on a blue or green screen and combines it with another video background. Adobe Ultra is only available in CS3 package. It is later incorporated into Adobe Premiere Elements and Adobe Visual Communicator. Later versions Adobe Premiere Pro and Adobe After Effects have built-in chroma key compositing features.
- Adobe Version Cue is a revision control system for maintaining multiple revisions of works among teams.
Applications in the Creative Suite family were capable of accessing a stock photography service called Adobe Stock Photos before the service was discontinued in 2008. In 2015, after acquiring microstock company Fotolia, Adobe once again launched a stock photography service called Adobe Stock along with its Creative Cloud service.
Adobe sold Creative Suite applications in several different combinations called "editions", these included:
- Adobe Creative Suite 6 Design Standard is an edition of the Adobe Creative Suite 6 family of products intended for professional print, web, interactive and mobile designers.
- Adobe Creative Suite 6 Design & Web Premium is an edition of the Adobe Creative Suite 6 family of products intended for professional web designers and developers.
- Adobe Creative Suite 6 Production Premium is an edition of the Adobe Creative Suite 6 family of products intended for professional rich media and video post-production experts who create projects for film, video, broadcast, web, DVD, Blu-ray Disc, and mobile devices.
- Adobe Creative Suite 6 Master Collection contains applications from all of the above editions
Adobe Flash Catalyst, Adobe Contribute, Adobe OnLocation, and Adobe Device Central, previously available in CS5.5, have been dropped from the CS6 line-up. Adobe Prelude and Adobe Encore are not released as standalone products. Adobe Encore is available as part of Adobe Premiere Pro. Adobe InCopy, a word processing application that integrates with Adobe InDesign, is also part of the Creative Suite family, but is not included in any CS6 edition.
In March 2013, it was reported that Adobe will no longer sell boxed copies of the Creative Suite software, instead offering digital downloads and monthly subscriptions.
Creative Suite 1 and 2
The Standard Edition included:
- Adobe Bridge (Since CS2)
- Adobe Illustrator
- Adobe InDesign
- Adobe Photoshop
- Adobe ImageReady
- Adobe Version Cue
- Design guide and training resources
- Adobe Stock Photos
The Premium Edition also included:
Due to Adobe's closing of the CS2 activation servers on December 15, 2012, Adobe offered existing CS2 users the opportunity to download a version of CS2 that no longer required Adobe server authorization in January 2013. This release was intended to allow existing users of CS2 to reinstall their licensed copies without needing authorization from the now-closed servers. Adobe published serial numbers on the January 8, 2013, but it was not until the January 24, 2013, that Adobe announced that download was intended only for people who had "legitimately purchased CS2". Many users ignored this announcement, or were not aware of it, and continued treating CS2 as either freeware or abandonware.
Creative Suite Production Studio
Adobe Creative Suite Production Studio (previously Adobe Video Collection) was a suite of programs for acquiring, editing, and distributing digital video and audio that was released during the same timeframe as Adobe Creative Suite 2. The suite was available in standard and premium editions.
The Adobe Production Studio Premium edition consisted of:
- Adobe After Effects Professional
- Adobe Audition
- Adobe Bridge
- Adobe Encore DVD
- Adobe Premiere Pro
- Adobe Photoshop
- Adobe Illustrator
- Adobe Dynamic Link (Not sold separately)
The Standard edition consisted of:
Since CS3, Adobe Production Studio became part of the Creative Suite family. The equivalent version for Production Studio Premium is the Adobe Creative Suite Production Premium.
Macromedia Studio was a suite of programs designed for web content creation designed and distributed by Macromedia. After Adobe's 2005 acquisition of Macromedia, Macromedia Studio 8 was replaced, modified, and integrated into two editions of the Adobe Creative Suite family of software from version 2.3 onwards. The closest relatives of Macromedia Studio 8 are now called Adobe Creative Suite Web Premium.
Core applications from Macromedia Studio have been merged with Adobe Creative Suite since CS3, including Flash, Dreamweaver, and Fireworks. Some Macromedia applications were absorbed into existing Adobe products, e.g. FreeHand has been replaced with Adobe Illustrator. Director and ColdFusion are not part of Adobe Creative Suite and will only be available as standalone products. The final version of Macromedia Studio released include:
- Macromedia Studio MX Released May 29, 2002, internally it was version 6 and the first incarnation of the studio to use the "MX" suffix, which for marketing purposes was a shorthand abbreviation that meant "Maximize". Studio MX included Dreamweaver, Flash, FreeHand, Fireworks and a developer edition of ColdFusion.
- Macromedia Studio MX Plus Released February 10, 2003, sometimes referred to as MX 1.1. MX Plus was a special edition release of MX that included Freehand MX (replacing Freehand 10), Contribute and DevNet Resource Kit Special Edition in addition to the existing MX suite of products.
- Macromedia Studio MX 2004 Released September 10, 2003, despite its name, it is internally version 7. Studio MX 2004 included FreeHand along with updated versions of Dreamweaver, Flash and Fireworks. An alternate version of Studio MX 2004 included Flash Professional and a new interface for Dreamweaver.
- Macromedia Studio 8 Released September 13, 2005, Studio 8 was the last version of Macromedia Studio. It comprised Dreamweaver 8, Flash 8, Flash 8 Video Converter, Fireworks 8, Contribute 3 and FlashPaper.
Creative Suite 3
Adobe Creative Suite 3 (CS3) was announced on March 27, 2007; it introduced universal binaries for all major programs for the Apple Macintosh, as well as including all of the core applications from Macromedia Studio and Production Studio.
Adobe began selling CS3 applications in six different combinations called "editions." Design Standard & Premium and Web Standard & Premium began shipping on April 16, 2007, and Production Premium and Master Collection editions began shipping on July 2, 2007. The latest released CS3 version was version 3.3, released on June 2, 2008. In this version Fireworks CS3 was included in Design Premium and all editions that had included Acrobat 8 Pro had it replaced with Acrobat 9 Pro. Below is a matrix of the applications included in each edition of CS3 version 3.3:
|Adobe Creative Suite 3|
|Photoshop CS3 Extended|
|Acrobat 8 Pro|
|Flash CS3 Professional|
|After Effects CS3 Professional|
|Premiere Pro CS3|
|OnLocation CS3 (Windows only)|
|Ultra CS3 (Windows only)|
|Device Central CS3|
|Version Cue CS3|
CS3 included several programs, including Dreamweaver, Flash, and Fireworks that were developed by Macromedia, a former rival acquired by Adobe in 2005. It also included Adobe OnLocation and Adobe Ultra that were developed by Serious Magic, also a firm acquired by Adobe in 2006.
Adobe dropped the following programs (that were previously included in CS2) from the CS3 software bundles:
- Adobe GoLive (replaced by Adobe Dreamweaver)
- Adobe ImageReady (merged into Adobe Photoshop and replaced by Adobe Fireworks)
- Adobe Audition (replaced by Adobe Soundbooth)
Adobe had announced that it would continue to develop Audition as a standalone product, while GoLive had been discontinued. Adobe GoLive 9 was released as a standalone product on June 10, 2007. Adobe Audition 3 was announced as a standalone product on September 6, 2007. Adobe had discontinued ImageReady and had replaced it with Fireworks, with some of ImageReady's features integrated into Photoshop.
Creative Suite 4
Adobe Creative Suite 4 (CS4) was announced on September 23, 2008 and officially released on October 15, 2008. All applications in CS4 featured the same user interface, with a new tabbed interface for working with concurrently running Adobe CS4 programs where multiple documents can be opened inside multiple tabs contained in a single window.
Adobe CS4 was also developed to perform better under 64-bit and multi-core processors. On MS Windows, Adobe Photoshop CS4 ran natively as a 64-bit application. Although they were not natively 64-bit applications, Adobe After Effects CS4 and Adobe Premiere Pro CS4 had been optimized for 64-bit computers. However, there were no 64-bit versions of CS4 available for Mac OS X. In early testing of 64-bit support in Adobe Photoshop CS4, overall performance gains ranged from 8% to 12%, due to the fact that 64-bit applications could address larger amounts of memory and thus resulted in less file swapping — one of the biggest factors that can affect data processing speed.
Two programs were dropped from the CS4 line-up: Adobe Ultra, a vector keying application which utilizes image analysis technology to produce high quality chroma key effects in less than ideal lighting environments and provides keying of a subject into a virtual 3D environment through virtual set technology, and Adobe Stock Photos. Below is a matrix of the applications that were bundled in each of the software suites for CS4:
|Adobe Creative Suite 4|
|Photoshop CS4 Extended|
|Acrobat 9 Pro|
|Flash CS4 Professional|
|After Effects CS4|
|Premiere Pro CS4|
|Shared features, services, and applications|
|Device Central CS4|
|Version Cue CS4|
Creative Suite 5
Adobe Creative Suite 5 (CS5) was released on April 30, 2010. From CS5 onwards, Windows versions of Adobe Premiere CS5 and Adobe After Effects CS5 were 64-bit only and required at least Windows Vista 64-bit or a later 64-bit Windows version. Windows XP Professional x64 Edition was no longer supported. Adobe Version Cue, an application that enabled users to track and manipulate file metadata and automate the process of collaboratively reviewing documents among groups of people, and the Adobe Creative Suite Web Standard edition, previously available in CS4, were dropped from the CS5 line-up. Below is a matrix of the applications that were bundled in each of the software suites for CS5:
|Adobe Creative Suite 5|
|Photoshop CS5 Extended|
|Acrobat 9.3 Pro|
|Flash Catalyst CS5|
|Flash Professional CS5|
|Flash Builder 4 Standard|
|Premiere Pro CS5|
|After Effects CS5|
|Shared features, services, and applications|
|Device Central CS5|
Creative Suite 5.5
Following the release of CS5 in April 2010, Adobe changed its release strategy to an every other year release of major number installments. CS5.5 was presented on April 12, 2011, as an in-between program until CS6. The update helped developers optimize websites for a variety of tablets, smart phones, and other devices. At the same time, Adobe announced a subscription-based pay service as an alternative to full purchase. On July 1, 2011, Adobe Systems announced its Switcher Program, which will allow people who had purchased any version of Apple's Final Cut Pro (or Avid Media Composer) to receive a 50 percent discount on Creative Suite CS5.5 Production Premium or Premiere Pro CS5.5.
Not all products were upgraded to CS5.5 in this release; applications that were upgraded to CS5.5 included Adobe InDesign, Adobe Flash Catalyst, Adobe Flash Professional, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Premiere Pro, Adobe After Effects, and Adobe Device Central. Adobe Audition also replaced Adobe Soundbooth in CS5.5, Adobe Story was first offered as an AIR-powered screenwriting and preproduction application, and Adobe Acrobat X Pro replaced Acrobat 9.3 Pro. Below is a matrix of the applications that were bundled in each of the software suites for CS5.5:
|Adobe Creative Suite 5.5|
|Photoshop CS5 Extended|
|Acrobat X Pro|
|Flash Catalyst CS5.5|
|Flash Professional CS5.5|
|Flash Builder 4.5 Premium Edition|
|Premiere Pro CS5.5|
|After Effects CS5.5|
|Shared features, services, and applications|
|Device Central CS5.5|
|Extension Manager CS5.5|
|ExtendScript Toolkit CS5.5|
|Media Encoder CS5.5|
|Extension Manager CS5.5|
Creative Suite 6
During an Adobe conference call on June 21, 2011, CEO Shantanu Narayen said that the April 2011 launch of CS5.5 was "the first release in our transition to an annual release cycle", adding, "We intend to ship the next milestone release of Creative Suite in 2012." On March 21, 2012, Adobe released a freely available beta version of Adobe Photoshop CS6. The final version of Adobe CS6 was launched on a release event April 23, 2012, and first shipped May 7. Adobe also launched a subscription-based offering named Adobe Creative Cloud where users are able to gain access to individual applications or the full Adobe Creative Suite 6 suite on a per-month basis, plus additional cloud storage spaces and services.
|Adobe Creative Suite 6|
|Design & Web
|Photoshop CS6 Extended|
|Acrobat X Pro|
|Flash Professional CS6|
|Flash Builder 4.6 Premium Edition|
|Premiere Pro CS6|
|After Effects CS6|
|Shared features, services, and applications|
|Media Encoder CS6|
|Extension Manager CS6|
|Extension Toolkit CS6|
|Story Plus CS6|
On May 5, 2013, during the opening keynote of its Adobe MAX conference, Adobe announced that it was retiring the "Creative Suite" branding in favor of "Creative Cloud", and making all future feature updates to its software (now appended with "CC" instead of "CS", e.g. Photoshop CC) available via the Creative Cloud subscription service rather than through the purchasing of perpetual licenses.
Customers must pay a subscription fee and if they stop paying, they will lose access to the software proprietary file formats, which is not backward-compatible with the Creative Suite (Adobe admitted that this is a valid concern). Individual subscribers must have an Internet connection to download the software and to use the 2 GB of provided storage space (or the additionally purchased 20 GB), and must validate the license monthly.
Adobe's decision to make the subscription service the only sales route for its creative software was met with strong criticism (see Creative Cloud controversy). Several online articles began offering replacements of Photoshop, Illustrator, and other programs, with free software such as GIMP and Inkscape or competing products such as CorelDRAW, PaintShop Pro, and Pixelmator directly offering alternatives.
In addition to many of the products formerly part of the Creative Suite (one product, Fireworks, was announced as having reached the end of its development cycle), Creative Cloud also offers subscription-exclusive products such as Adobe Muse and the Adobe Edge family, Web-based file and website hosting, Typekit fonts, and access to the Behance social media platform. The new CC versions of their applications, and the full launch of the updated Creative Cloud service, was announced for June 17, 2013. New versions with major feature updates have been released regularly, with a refresh of the file formats occurring in October 2014. Adobe also announced that it would continue to offer bug fixes for the CS6 products so that they will continue to run on the next versions of Microsoft Windows and Apple OS X.
- Crosby, Connor (2012-04-23). "Adobe Announces CS6, Ships May 7th?". EditingWhiz. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- Cunningham, Andrew. "Adobe's Creative Suite is dead, long live the Creative Cloud". Ars Technica.
- "Adobe heralds subscription-only future for Photoshop and Creative Suite". Digital Photography Review.
- Campbell-Dollaghan, Kelsey. "Say Goodbye to Creative Suite: Adobe CS Is Now Creative Cloud". Gizmondo.
- "Adobe scraps Creative Suite software licenses in favor of cloud subscriptions", Mac World.
- "Products". Adobe. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
- "Creative Cloud now includes Creative Suite Master Collection and Design Premium features". Adobe. 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
- Nack, John (4 February 2008). "Adobe Stock Photos to be discontinued". John Nack on Adobe. Adobe.
- Bookwalter, J.R. (16 June 2015). "Adobe updates Creative Cloud with a sync service, stock photos, and more". Macworld. IDG.
- Hardy, Robert (16 June 2015). "Adobe Just Launched Their Own Stock Photo Service". No Film School. NoNetwork.
- Wadhwani, David (19 June 2015). "Adobe Stock: Shaking Up The Stock Content Market". Adobe Creative Cloud blog. Adobe.
- Robertson, Adi (March 13, 2013). "Adobe 'phasing out' boxed copies of Creative Suite and Acrobat". TheVerge. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- "Creative Suite" (press release). Adobe. Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Creative Suite 2" (press release). Adobe. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "New Adobe Acrobat 8 Professional Enhances Adobe Creative Suite 2.3". Adobe Systems. 18 September 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
Adobe Creative Suite 2.3 Premium also bundles Dreamweaver® 8
- "CS2 downloads". Adobe. 2013-01-01. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- "Adobe Community: Looking to activate Creative Suite 2, Acrobat 7, or Macromedia products?". Adobe. 2002-07-21. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Adobe CS2 Downloads". Adobe. 2013-01-08. Archived from the original on January 8, 2013.
- "Adobe CS2 Downloads". Adobe. 2013-01-24. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013.
- "Adobe CS2 is Now Available for Free, Sort Of". Mobile Magazine. 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- "Support for Intel-based Mac computers" (PDF). Adobe. 2006-01-31. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 29, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-29.
- Borg, Johan (2007-03-28). "9.2 Beta – By Opera Desktop Team". Opera Software ASA. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
- "Press Room: For immediate release". Adobe. 2009-07-14. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "New Adobe Acrobat 8 Professional Enhances Adobe Creative Suite 2.3". Adobe. 2006-09-18. Archived from the original on March 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- "Adobe Creative Suite 4 Now Shipping" (PDF) (press release). Adobe. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
- "Adobe Creative Suite 4 Software Brings Unprecedented Efficiency via a Unified Application Interface". Atelier-us. 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Adobe Creative Suite Production Premium 64-bit Optimization White Paper" (PDF). Adobe. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 14, 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-11.
- "Adobe CS4 will be 64-bit, but only on Windows". Beta news. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "FAQ". Photoshop CS4. Adobe. 2009-07-14. Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Adobe Creative Suite 5 Starts Shipping". PC World. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- "Is CS5 64-Bit-Only? And Other Top Questions Answered | ProDesignTools".
- Brady, Russell (2011-04-10). "Introducing Adobe Creative Suite 5.5 Product Family". Conversations (Web log). Adobe. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- Reisinger, Don (Jul 1, 2011), Adobe tries discounts to woo Final Cut Pro ranters, CNET, retrieved Jul 1, 2011.
- "Q2 Fiscal Year 2011 Earnings Call Script" (PDF). Investor relations. Adobe. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- "Audition Photoshop CS6 Beta". Labs (download). Adobe. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "Adobe CS 6 Release" (press release). 2012-04-23.
- "Creative Cloud". Products. Adobe. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- Yeung, Ken (2013-05-06). "Adobe Abandons Its Creative Suite to Focus on Creative Cloud". The next Web. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
- "Adobe casts cloud on budgets", The Columbian, 2013-06-02.
- Why You Should Hate Adobe’s Creative Cloud, F stoppers.
- Open Letter to Adobe about the Creative Cloud Subscription Model, DE: Phisch eye, 2013-05-08.
- "Creative Cloud Complaints Darken Adobe's View of the Future", TidBITS.
- Nack, John (May 2013), You should never lose access to your work, period, Adobe.
- Adobe Creative Cloud Fail, Photography life.
- "Clouding The Issue", The Luminous Landscape (essay).
- Creative Cloud or Captive Consumer, Kept light, May 2013.
- "Online Petition Against Adobe's Creative Cloud Approaches 9,000", PC Mag.
- "Analysis: The real reason Adobe ditched Creative Suite for Creative Cloud", DigitalArts, UK.
- "Build Your Own Adobe Creative Suite with Free and Cheap Software", Life hacker.
- "Bring out the GIMP: Adobe Photoshop and Creative Suite to become subscription-only", ExtremeTech.
- Gerard (2013-03-26), Subscription or Perpetual Box / Download – It’s Your Choice (World Wide Web log), CorelDraw.
- "Corel woos customers unhappy with Adobe's subscription-only Creative Cloud plan", Imaging Resource, 2013-05-20.
- "Cloudiness", Pixelmator (blog), 2013-05-07.
- Summers, Nick (2013-05-06). "Yes, Adobe is killing Fireworks". The next Web. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
- "Max 2013: What's New with Adobe CC Design Products". Mac life. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
- "Adobe Goes All In With Subscription-Based Creative Cloud, Will Stop Selling Regular Licenses". Tech crunch. 2013-05-06. Retrieved 2013-05-26.