Wallenberg was born in Preussisch Stargard. He studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Leipzig, receiving his doctorate from the latter institution in 1886. From 1886 to 1888 he worked as an assistant in the Städtisches Krankenhaus in Danzig, where he settled as a practitioner. From 1907 to 1928 he served as director of the internal medicine department at the hospital, attaining the title of professor in 1910. In order to escape Nazism he emigrated to Great Britain in 1938. He later relocated to the United States in 1943, where he died several years later in Manteno, Illinois.
With Edinger, and later alone, he published the "Jahresberichte über die Leistungen auf dem Gebiete der Anatomie des Zentralnervensystems" (1895–1928). Since 1975 the "Adolf Wallenberg-Preis" has been awarded by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie for outstanding contributions made in the field of cerebrovascular disease, cerebral hemorrhage or cerebral metabolism.
- Wallenberg's syndrome: (Synonyms: dorsolateral medullary syndrome, lateral bulbar syndrome, lateral medullary infarction syndrome, posteroinferior cerebellar artery syndrome): A complex of symptoms caused by occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, resulting in sensory and sympathetic disturbances, cerebellar ataxy, etc.
- Marianne Wallenberg-Chermak: Adolf Wallenberg. In Kurt Kolle (Hrsg.): Große Nervenärzte, Band 3. Georg Thieme: Stuttgart - New York, 1963.
- Thibaut - Zycha, Volume 10 edited by Walther Killy
- Eminent Neuroscientists Their Lives and Works by Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
- Clinical Neuroanatomy: Brain Circuitry and Its Disorders by Hans J. ten Donkelaar
- Wallenberg's syndrome Who Named It
- Preise der DGN: Adolf Wallenberg-Preis
- Lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome)
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