He was born in Copenhagen, where his father was pastor of the French church. Educated at Paris and Geneva, he began his life-work in 1825 as founder and pastor of a Protestant church in Naples, moving to Lyon in 1827. Here his evangelical preaching, and especially a sermon on the duties of communicants (Qui doit communier?), led to his deposition by the Catholic Minister of education and religion. Instead of leaving Lyon he began to preach in a hall and then in a chapel.
On 2 September 1829 he married Hannah Honyman in Lyon. They had seven children.
Monod was undoubtedly the foremost Protestant preacher of 19th century France. He published three volumes of sermons in 1830, another, La Crédulité de l'incrédule in 1844, and two more in 1855. Two further volumes appeared after his death. One of his most influential books was the posthumous, Les Adieux d'Adolphe Monod à ses Amis et à l'Église (1857).
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Monod, Adolphe". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Monod, S., Life and Letters of Adolphe Monod, pastor of the Reformed Church of France, by one of his daughters, London : Nisbet & Co., 1885 — authorised translation, abridged from the original.
- Monod, Adolphe, Adolphe Monod's Farewell to his Friends and to his Church, a new translation by the Rev. Owen Thomas. London, Banner of Truth Trust, 1962.
- Osen, James L., Prophet and peacemaker : the life of Adolphe Monod, Lanham, MD : University Press of America, c1984, ISBN 0-8191-3826-6.