|• Type||Municipal Council|
|• MLA||Y.Sai Prasad Reddy (Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party)|
|• City||32.71 km2 (12.63 sq mi)|
|Elevation||435 m (1,427 ft)|
|• Rank||15th (in AP)|
|• Density||5,100/km2 (13,000/sq mi)|
|• Official||Telugu (official), Urdu (co-official)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||1008 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Kurnool|
Adoni is a city in Kurnool district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the headquarters of Adoni mandal, administered under Adoni Revenue Division. It also one of the 9 municipalities in Kurnool district. As of 2011[update] census of India, the city had a population of 166,537, making it the 15th most populous city in the state. It had an urban agglomeration population of 184,771.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2011)|
Adoni was a military base for the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. After the downfall of empire in the 16th century, it was taken possession by the Bijapur sovereigns. In the 17th century, Kurnool was under the governorship of a hereditary line of jagirdars of African origin. They were among the most powerful nobles at court. In 1683. Adoni was then the principal fort of the district. Siddi Masud, the governor of Kurnool and regent of Sultan Sikandar Bijapuri, retired to Adoni, where he ruled independently until 1689. In the same year, he surrendered to the Mughal general Anup Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner.
Siddi Masud is credited with improving the fort at Adoni, clearing the forest area in the vicinity of Adoni and establishing the townships of Imatiazgadh and Adilabad, and also constructing the Jamia Masjid. Art historian Mark Zebrowski notes in his book Deccani Painting that the capture of Adoni revealed that Siddi Masud had been an avid collector of painting, and a patron of the Kurnool school of painting.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, Adoni remained under governors appointed by the Nizams of Hyderabad. In 1760, it was held by Basalut Jung, who made it his capital. In 1786-7, Tipu Sultan besieged Adoni, and after a month's siege, captured it. After his death and defeat at the hands of the English, Adoni was ceded to the English.
Under British rule South India was divided into several administrative districts; Adoni fell into the district of Bellary of Madras presidency. In 1867 AD, The Adoni Municipal Council was created, along with the Bellary Municipal Council.
The city gained its present seat as part of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1953, after the linguistic reorganization of states. On October 1, 1953, Bellary district of Madras State was divided on linguistic basis, and Adoni (along with Yemmiganur, Alur, Raayadurgam, D.Hirehaalu, Kanekallu, Bommanahaalu, and Gummagatta) were merged into Anantapuram and Kurnool district in what would later became the Andhra Pradesh state.
Geography and Climate
Adoni is located at  It has an average elevation of 435 metres (1427 feet) above sea level. The climate is mainly tropical, with temperatures ranging between 31 °C – 45 °C in summer and 21 °C – 29 °C in winter..
As of 2011[update] census, the town had a population of 166,537. The total population constitute, 82,743 males and 83,794 females —a sex ratio of 1013 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 18,406 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 9,355 are boys and 9,051 are girls—a ratio of 968 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 68.38% with 101,292 literates, significantly lower than the national average of 73.00%.
The Urban Agglomeration had a population of 184,771, of which males constitute 92,006, females constitute 92,765 —a sex ratio of 1008 females per 1000 males and 20,517 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 112,151 literates with an average literacy rate of 68.28%.
Adoni is one of the largest producer of cotton and has a substantial textile industry. Adoni is a famous trading centre in Andhra Pradesh with a big market situated in the heart of the town. Britishers called Adoni as second Bombay for trade.
During British period, cotton mills and oil mills were located in Adoni. The main exports are oil, cotton, rice, vegetables etc. And also famous for Granite mines. It is a renowned location for gold, textile and cotton trade.
The Railway station of Adoni was built during British rule over 100 years ago. It comes under South Central Railway on the Solapur-Guntakal line which is part of Chennai-Mumbai line and several trains run daily to these cities and New Delhi.
It is connected to major cities of the state by road. Adoni is well connected to the cities like Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kurnool, Anantapur, Vijayawada, Bellary, Tirupathi, Mysore etc. by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC), Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) and some private travels. Within the city, auto rickshaws and rented cars are a common means of commutation.
Adoni fort is one of the famous forts in India. It was the capital city of the Vijayanagara Kingdom for a long time until the Muslims, the Deccan sultanates, won the battle for the capital city of Hampi. Adoni was the capital city of a vast area during this time, and was one of the largest forts in the Vijayanagara Kingdom. The fort ramparts surrounded by 50 km. The fort has number of entrance gates, and is encircled atop seven huge granite hills. It had built by 12 sub-forts so adoni fort is also called barakilla in Hindi. The fort has secret tunnels that connect to Bellary and Hampi forts.
|This section requires expansion. (December 2014)|
- "MLA". AP State Portal. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Basic Information of Municipality". Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- M.C., Obulesu (2006). Total literacy campaign : with special reference to adult drop-outs. New Delhi: D.P.H. Discovery Publishing House. pp. 70–72. ISBN 978-81-8356-056-6. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "ULBs". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Zebrowski, Mark (1982). Deccani Painting Deccani painting (1. publ. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- Rangachar Vasantha, M A Mannan Basha, Islamic architecture of Deccan
- John Walker, Pharoah; Charles Walker (1855). A gazetteer of Southern India: with the Tenasserim Provinces and Singapore. Pharoah. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 7. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1908. pp. 158–176.
- "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Adoni". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Adoni Map | India Google Satellite Maps". Maplandia.com. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
- "Index". adonicollege.com.
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