Adreno

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Adreno is a series of graphics processing unit (GPU) semiconductor intellectual property cores developed by Qualcomm and used in many of their SoCs.

History[edit]

Adreno (an anagram of AMD's graphic card brand Radeon), was originally developed by ATI Technologies and sold to Qualcomm in 2009 for $65M,[1][2] and was used in their mobile chipset products. Early Adreno models included the Adreno 100 and 110, which had 2D graphics acceleration and limited multimedia capabilities. At the time, 3D graphics on mobile platforms were commonly handled using software-based rendering engines, which limited their performance. With growing demand for more advanced multimedia and 3D graphics capabilities, Qualcomm licensed the Imageon IP from AMD, in order to add hardware-accelerated 3D capabilities to their mobile products.[3] Further collaboration with AMD resulted in the development of the Adreno 200, originally named the AMD Z430, based on the R400[4] architecture used in the Xenos GPU of the Xbox 360 video game console[5] and released in 2008, which was integrated into the first Snapdragon SoC. In January 2009, AMD sold their entire Imageon handheld device graphics division to Qualcomm.[6]

Technical details[edit]

Variants[edit]

The company offers Adreno GPUs in various types, as a component of their Snapdragon SoCs:

Name Microarchitecture Fab (nm) Clock [MHz] Memory technology Fillrate GFLOPS API (version) Used in Qualcomm... References
Type ALUs
(SIMDs, FP32) [note 1]
On-chip graphics memory TMU Memory bandwidth Triangle

[MT/s]

Pixel

[GP/s]

Texture

[GT/s]

(FP64) (FP32) (FP16) Vulkan OpenGL ES OpenVG OpenCL OpenGL Direct3D
Before Adreno
Defender2 0.25 0.007 1.0 [7]
Defender3 0.25 0.022
Stargate 0.6 0.09 1.1
Adreno 1xx series
Adreno 100 1.0 [8]
Adreno 110 1.1 [8][9]
Adreno 120 fixed function pipeline 1.1 [10][8]
Adreno 130 ? ? 90 or 65 ? 1.6

4[11]

?

0.133

?

0.3

?

1.2

?

2.4

Direct3D Mobile MSM7x00, MSM7x00A, MSM7x01, MSM7x01A [12][13][14][8]
Adreno 2xx series - yamato
Adreno 200 (AMD Z430) Unified shader model
5-way VLIW[15]
8

[2]

256 KB 65 133 LPDDR-333 Single-channel 32-bit @ 166.5 MHz (1.3 GB/s) 22.85 0.133 0.53 2.12 4.25 2.0 1.1 1.4 (freedreno driver) 11
(feature level 9_3)[16]
Snapdragon S1 (MSM7227, MSM7627 QSD8250, QSD8650), Freescale i.MX51, i.MX53
Adreno 200 'enhanced' 45 200 245 LPDDR-400 Single-channel 32-bit @ 200 MHz (1.6 GB/s) 42 0.200 0.245 0.80 0.98 3.20 3.92 6.40 12.8 Snapdragon S1 (MSM7227A, MSM7627A, MSM7225A, MSM7625A)
Adreno 203 16

[4]

245 294 LPDDR2-600 Single-channel 32-bit @ 300 MHz (2.4 GB/s) 40.8 49.0 0.245 0.294 1.96 2.35 7.84 9.40 15.6 18.8 Snapdragon S4 Play (MSM8225, MSM8625), Snapdragon 200 (MSM8225Q, MSM8625Q)
Adreno 205 245 266 LPDDR2-666 Dual-channel 32-bit (64-bit) @ 333 MHz (5.3 GB/s) 40.8 44.3 0.245 0.266 1.96 2.12 7.84 8.51 15.6 17.0 Snapdragon S2 (MSM7x30, MSM8x55, APQ8055)
Adreno 2xx series - leia
Adreno 220 Unified shader model
5-way VLIW[15]
32

[8]

512 KB 45 266 LPDDR2-666 Single-channel 32-bit @ 333 MHz (2.6 GB/s) 88.7 0.532 4.25 17.0 34.0 2.0 1.1 1.4 (freedreno driver) 11
(feature level 9_3)[16]
Snapdragon S3 (APQ8060, MSM8x60)
Adreno 225 28 200 300 400 LPDDR2-1000 Dual-channel 32-bit (64-bit) @ 500 MHz (8.0 GB/s) 133.3 0.8 3.20 4.80 6.40 12.8 19.2 25.6 25.6 38.4 51.2 Snapdragon S4 Plus (APQ8060A, MSM8x60A, MSM8960) [17]
Adreno 3xx series - oxili
Adreno 304 Unified shader model
Scalar instruction set[18]
24

[24]

96 KB 28 400 LPDDR2/3-768/1066 Single-channel 32-bit @ 384-533  MHz (3.0-4.2 GB/s) 4.80 19.2 38.4 3.0[16] (freedreno driver: 3.0, 3.1 incomplete, 3.2 partial) 1.1 1.1 embedded profile 3.1 (freedreno driver, 3.2 incomplete, 3.3 complete) 11
(feature level 9_3)[16]
Snapdragon 208, Snapdragon 210, Snapdragon 212
Adreno 305 (1st Gen.) 256 KB 400 450 LPDDR2-800 Single-channel 32-bit @ 400 MHz (3.2 GB/s) 66.7 75 0.8 4.80 5.40 19.2 21.6 38.4 43.2 Snapdragon S4 Plus (MSM8x27)
Adreno 305 (2nd Gen.) 128 KB LPDDR2/3-1066 Single-channel 32-bit 533 MHz (4.2 GB/s) 66.7 75 0.8 Snapdragon 200 (MSM8210, MSM8610, MSM8212, MSM8612)
Snapdragon 400[19] (MSM8x26, MSM8x28, MSM8x30, MSM8x30AB, APQ8026, APQ8030)
[20]
[21]
Adreno 306 400 LPDDR2/3-1066 Single-channel 32-bit @ 533 MHz (4.2 GB/s) 84.3 0.8 4.80 19.2 38.4 Snapdragon 410 (MSM8916), Snapdragon 412 (MSM8916v2) [22]
Adreno 308 500 LPDDR3-1333 Single-channel 32-bit @ 666.5 MHz (5.3 GB/s) 105.4 1.0 6.00 24.0 48.0 Snapdragon 425 (MSM8917) Snapdragon 427 (MSM8920)
Adreno 320 (1st Gen.) 64

[64]

512 KB[22] 400 LPDDR2-1066 Dual-channel 32-bit (64-bit) @ 533 MHz (8.5 GB/s) 225 1.6 3.2 12.8 51.2 102.4 Snapdragon S4 Pro (MSM8960T, APQ8064, APQ8064-1AA), Snapdragon S4 Prime (MPQ8064) [23]
Adreno 320 (2nd Gen.) 96

[96]

400 450 LPDDR3-1200 Dual-channel 32-bit (64-bit) @ 600 MHz (9.6 GB/s) 225 253.1 2.4 2.7 >3.2 19.2 21.6 76.8 86.4 153.6 172.8 Snapdragon 600 (APQ8064T, APQ8064AB) [23]
Adreno 330 128

[128]

1024 KB 450 550 578 LPDDR3-1600 Dual-channel 32-bit (64-bit) @ 800 MHz (12.8 GB/s) 253.1 309.4 325.1 3.6 4.4 4.624 28.8 35.2 36.9 115.2 140.8 147.9 230.4 281.6 295.9 Snapdragon 800 (MSM8974, APQ8074), Snapdragon 801 (MSM8274AB, MSM8974AB, MSM8974AC) [24]
Adreno 4xx series
Adreno 405 Unified shader model 48

[48]

256 KB 28 550 LPDDR3-1333/1866 Single-channel 32-bit @ 666.5-933 MHz (5.3-7.4 GB/s) 13.2 52.8 105.6 3.2 (freedreno driver: 3.0, 3.1 incomplete, 3.2 partial) 1.1 1.2 full profile 3.1 (freedreno driver, 3.2 incomplete, 3.3 complete) 11
(feature level 11_1)[16]
Snapdragon 415 (MSM8929), Snapdragon 610 (MSM8936), Snapdragon 615 (MSM8939), Snapdragon 616 (MSM8939v2), Snapdragon 617 (MSM8952)
Adreno 418 128

[128]

512 KB 20 600 LPDDR3-1866 Dual-channel 32-bit (64-bit) @ 933 MHz (14.9 GB/s) 38.4 153.6 307.2 1.0[25] Snapdragon 808 (MSM8992)
Adreno 420 1536 KB 28 500 600 LPDDR3-1600 Dual-channel 64-bit (128-bit) @ 800 MHz (25.6 GB/s) 281.3 337.5

(0.56[26] Tr/clock)

4

4.8

(8.2 Px/clock)

32.0 38.4 128.0 153.6 256.0 307.2 1.0 [note 2] Snapdragon 805 (APQ8084) [27]
Adreno 430 256

[256]

20 500 600 650 LPDDR4-3200 Dual-channel 32-bit (64-bit) @ 1600 MHz (25.6 GB/s) ? 4.8

6.0 6.6

64.0 76.8 83.2 256.0 307.2 332.8 512.0 614.4 665.6 1.0[25] Snapdragon 810 (APQ8094, MSM8994)
Adreno 5xx series
Adreno 504 Unified shader model + Unified memory ? ? 12 ? LPDDR3-1600 Single-channel 32-bit @ 800 MHz (6.4 GB/s) ? ? ? ? 1.0[25] 3.2[28] (freedreno driver: 3.1, 3.2 partial) ? 2.0 Full 3.1 (freedreno driver, 3.2 incomplete, 3.3 complete) 11
(feature level 11_1)[16]
Snapdragon 429
Adreno 505 48

[48]

128 + 8 KB 28 450 ? 10.8 43.2 86.4 Snapdragon 430 (MSM8937), Snapdragon 435, Snapdragon 439
Adreno 506 96

[96]

14 600 650 LPDDR3-1866 Single-channel 32-bit @ 933 MHz (7.4 GB/s) ? ? ? 28.8 31.2 115.2 124.8 230.4 249.6 Snapdragon 450, Snapdragon 625, Snapdragon 626, Snapdragon 632
Adreno 508 128

[128]

650 LPDDR4-2666 Dual‑channel 16‑bit (32-bit) @ 1333 MHz (10.6 GB/s) ? ? ? 41.6 166.4 332.8 Snapdragon 630
Adreno 509 256 + 16 KB 720 LPDDR4-2666 Dual‑channel 32‑bit (64-bit) @ 1333 MHz (21.3 GB/s) ? ? ? 46.0 184.3 368.6 Snapdragon 636
Adreno 510 256 KB 28 600 LPDDR3-1866 Dual‑channel 32‑bit (64-bit) @ 933 MHz (14.9 GB/s) ? ? ? 38.4 153.6 307.2 3.2 (3.1 + AEP) (freedreno driver: 3.1, 3.2 partial) Snapdragon 650 (MSM8956), Snapdragon 652 (MSM8976),

Snapdragon 653 (MSM8976PRO)

Adreno 512 256 + 16 KB 14 650

850

LPDDR4-3732 Quad-channel 16-bit (64-bit) @ 1866 MHz (29.8 GB/s) ? ? ? 41.6

54.4

166.4

217.6

332.8

435.2

Snapdragon 660 (MSM8976 Plus)
Adreno 530 256

[256]

1024 KB 510 624 653 ? 6.7

8.1

7.7

8.1

65.2 79.8 83.5 261.1 319.4 334.3 522.2 638.9 668.6 12
(feature level 11_1)
Snapdragon 820 (MSM8996),

Snapdragon 821 (MSM8996PRO)

Adreno 540 384

[384]

10 710 739 >450 ? 11.36 (16 Texel/clock)[29][30] 136.3 141.8 545.2 567.5 1090.0 1135.1 Snapdragon 835 (MSM8998)
Adreno 6xx series
Adreno 605 Unified shader model + Unified memory 128+8 KB 14 1.0 and 1.1[31][25] 3.2 2.0 Full WIP (freedreno driver) 12
(feature level 12_1)[16]
Adreno 608 10 LPDDR4X-4266 Dual-channel 16-bit (32-bit) @ 2133 MHz (17.0 GB/s) Snapdragon SA6155P [32]
Adreno 610 128 [128] ? 11 600

750

950

28.8

36

68
115.2

144

273

230.4

288

546

Snapdragon 460
Snapdragon 662
Snapdragon 665

QCS4290

[33][34]
6 Snapdragon 680
Adreno 612 128 256+16 KB 11 745

845

LPDDR4X-3732 Dual‑channel 16‑bit (32-bit) @ 1866 MHz (14.9 GB/s) 47.7

54.1

190.7

216.3

381.4

432.6

Snapdragon 675
Snapdragon 678
Adreno 615 256

[128]

512 KB 10 700

780

89.6 358.4 716.8 QCS603

QCS605

Snapdragon 670

[35][36]
Adreno 616 750 96.0 384.0 768.0 Snapdragon 710
Snapdragon 712
Adreno 618 8 700

825

[37]

89.6 105.6 358.4 422.4 716.8 844.8 Snapdragon 720G
Snapdragon 730
Snapdragon 730G
Snapdragon 732G
Snapdragon 7c

Snapdragon 7c Gen 2

[38]
Adreno 619L 950 LPDDR4X-4266 Dual-channel 16-bit (32-bit) @ 2133 MHz (17.0 GB/s) Snapdragon 690
Adreno 619 825

950

116.4

134

465.5

536

930.9

1072

Snapdragon 480/480+
Snapdragon 750G
[39]
6 Snapdragon 695
Adreno 620 384

[192]

7 625
750
6.7/8.1 120.0 144.0 480.0 576.0 960.0 1152.0 Snapdragon 765
Snapdragon 765G
Snapdragon 768G
Adreno 630 512

[256]

1024 KB 10 710 LPDDR4X-4266 Quad-channel 16-bit (64-bit) @ 1866 MHz (29.8 GB/s) >500 ? 15.4 181.7 727.0 1454.0 Snapdragon 845
Snapdragon 850
[40][41][42][43]
Adreno 640 768

[384]

12*2[44] 7 585
675
LPDDR4X-4266 Quad-channel 16-bit (64-bit) @ 2133 MHz (34.1 GB/s) ? 9.4 28.1 224.6 259.2 898.5 1036.8[37]
1797.1 2073.6[45] Snapdragon 855/855+
Snapdragon 860

Snapdragon 855A (SA8155P)

[46][40]
Adreno 642L 384

[192]

6 490 LPDDR4X-4266 Dual-channel 16-bit (32-bit) @ 2133 MHz (17.0 GB/s) Snapdragon 778G/778G+
Adreno 642 5 Snapdragon 780G
Adreno 643L 6 812 LPDDR4X-4266 or LPDDR5-6400 Quad-channel 16-bit (64-bit) @ 2133 MHz or 3200 MHz (34.1 GB/s or 44.0GB/s) QCS6490
Adreno 650 1024

[512]

[47]

? and 300 Go/s[48] 24*2[49] 7 587 670 LPDDR4X-4266 or LPDDR5-6400 Quad-channel 16-bit (64-bit) @ 2133 MHz or 3200 MHz (34.1 GB/s or 44.0GB/s) 14.x (est.)[50] 28.1 (est.)[50] 300.5 343.0 1202.1 1372.1[37][50][51][52] 2404.3 2744.3 Snapdragon 865/865+
Snapdragon 870

QCS8250

[40][53]
Adreno 660 1024

[512]

5 792 905 LPDDR5-6400 Quad-channel 16-bit (64-bit) @ 3200 MHz (51.2 GB/s) 405.5 463.3 1622.0 1853.4[54] 3244.0 3706.8 Snapdragon 888/888+
Adreno 675 1344 [672] ? 7 590 LPDDR4X-4266 Quad-channel 16-bit (64-bit) @ 2133 MHz (34.1 GB/s) 396.4 1585.9 3171.8 Snapdragon 8c [55]
Adreno 680 1536

[768]

? 600 LPDDR4X-4266 Octa-channel 16-bit (128-bit) @ 2133 MHz (68.2 GB/s) 460.8 1843.2[56] 3686.4 [57] Snapdragon 8cx Gen 1/2

Snapdragon SA8195P

[57][58]
Adreno 685 ? 250 590 192.0 453.1 768.0 1812.4 1536.0 3624.9 Microsoft SQ1 [59][60]
Adreno 690[61] 661 680 507.6 522.2 2030.5 2088.9 4061.1 4177.9 Microsoft SQ2 [62]
Adreno 7xx series
Adreno 702 845 LPDDR3-1866 Single-channel 32-bit @ 933 MHz (7.4 GB/s) or

LPDDR4X-3732 Dual‑channel 16‑bit (32-bit) @ 1866 MHz (14.9 GB/s)

QCS2290
Adreno 730 1536

[768]

1024 KB 4 818
900
LPDDR4X-3732 Dual‑channel 16‑bit (32-bit) @ 1866 MHz (14.9 GB/s) or

LPDDR5-3200 Single-channel 128-bit @ 933 MHz (64 GB/s)

1,864 MT/s 22.0 GPixel/s 628.2 2512.8 5025.7 Snapdragon 8/8+ Gen 1 [63]
Name Type ALUs
(SIMDs, FP32) [note 1]
On-chip graphics memory TMU Fab (nm) Clock

[MHz]

Memory bandwidth Triangle

[MT/s]

Pixel

[GP/s]

Texture

[GT/s]

(FP64) (FP32) (FP16) Vulkan OpenGL ES OpenVG OpenCL OpenGL Direct3D Used in Qualcomm... References
Microarchitecture Memory technology Fillrate GFLOPS API (version)
Notes
  1. ^ a b Adreno ALU = ALU x MP amount
  2. ^ Adreno 420 Vulkan driver was never released
  • Adreno 130 inside the MSM7x01, and MSM7x01A. It supports OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.3, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI.
  • Adreno 200 (AMD Z430) inside the QSD8x50 and MSM7x27 (133 MHz). It offers a programmable function pipeline and streaming textures with support for OpenGL ES 1.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2 and DirectDraw. (22M triangles/second, 133M pixels/second, clock speed up to 133 MHz)
  • Adreno 200 enhanced inside the MSM7x25A and MSM7x27A (200 MHz). It supports OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI. (40M triangles/second, 200M pixels/second, clock speed up to 200 MHz)
  • Adreno 203 inside the MSM8225 and MSM8225Q (400 MHz). It is an improvement over Adreno 205. It features a higher frequency, has better pixel fillrate, lower power consumption, better 3D performance. It is about 50-100% faster than Adreno 200 (enhanced), and 10–25% than Adreno 205. It could clock 2x times higher than Adreno 205. It supports OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, DirectX 9.0c, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI. (42-50M triangles/second, 250-300M pixels/second, clock speed from 192 to 400 MHz)
  • Adreno 205 inside the QSD8x50A, MSM7x30, and MSM8x55 (245 MHz). Its improvements include Hardware-accelerated SVG and Adobe Flash and better shader-performance than the Adreno 200. It supports OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI. (57M triangles/second, 250M pixels/second, clock speed up to 400 MHz)
  • Adreno 220 inside the MSM8660 or MSM8260 (266 MHz) with single channel memory. It supports OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, DirectX 9.0c, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI. (88M triangles/second, 500M pixels/second, standard clock speed up to 266 MHz, overclock up to 400 MHz)
  • Adreno 225 inside the MSM8960 (400 MHz), with unified shader architecture and dual channel memory. It supports Direct3D 9.0c in addition to OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI.
  • Adreno 320 inside the Qualcomm S4 Pro & Prime Series, with unified shader architecture and dual channel memory. It supports Direct3D feature level 9_3 in addition to OpenGL ES 3.0, OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2[23]
  • Adreno 330 inside the Nexus 5, Amazon Kindle HDX series tablets, Amazon Fire phone, Nokia Lumia 2520 tablet, Nokia Lumia 1520, Nokia Lumia Icon, Nokia Lumia 930, Samsung Galaxy S5, Samsung Galaxy Note 3, Sony Xperia Z1, Sony Xperia Z1 Compact, Sony Xperia Z2, Sony Xperia Z3, Sony Xperia Z3 Compact, Sony Xperia Z Ultra, Xiaomi Mi3, Xiaomi Mi4, OnePlus One, HTC One (M8) and LG G2/G3 smartphones.
  • Adreno 420 inside the Qualcomm Snapdragon 805 supports Direct3D 11.2 runtime (feature level 11_1). Inside the Google Nexus 6, Samsung Galaxy S5 LTE-A, Samsung Galaxy Note 4, Samsung Galaxy Note Edge, LG G3 Cat. 6, Amazon Fire HDX 8.9 (2014). The Qualcomm Snapdragon 805 is the first phone SoC ever to feature a 128-bit memory bus.
  • Adreno 540 inside the Qualcomm Snapdragon 835 is the first phone SoC to feature variable refresh rate and foveated rendering/Variate Rate Shading, Qualcomm calls their implementations Q-Sync and Adreno Foveation.
  • Adreno 630 inside the Qualcomm Snapdragon 845 is the first phone SoC to feature Inside-Out Room-scale 6DoF with SLAM.
  • Adreno 640 inside the Qualcomm Snapdragon 855 is the first phone SoC to feature updateable GPU drivers from the Google Play Store.
  • Adreno 660 inside the Qualcomm Snapdragon 888 is the first phone SoC to feature Variable Rate Shading (VRS).

Operating system support[edit]

There are proprietary drivers for the Linux-based mobile operating system Android available from Qualcomm themselves.[citation needed] Historically the only way to have GPU support on non-Android Linux was with the libhybris wrapper.

Linux and Mesa supports the Adreno 200/300/400/500 series of GPUs with a driver called freedreno. Freedreno allows fully open-source graphics on devices like the 96Boards Dragonboard 410c and Nexus 7 (2013).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Qualcomm History and its GPU (R)evolution". PC Perspective. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  2. ^ Sag, Anshel. "Qualcomm's Mobile GPU Innovations Power The Future Of Gaming". Forbes. Retrieved 2022-02-05.
  3. ^ "AMD Licenses 3D Graphics Core Technology to QUALCOMM, Delivering The Ultimate Visual Experience to Tomorrow's Phones". 14 March 2009. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  4. ^ "Ex. 2050 - R400 Document Library FH - folder_history (PROTECTIVE ORDER) — IPR2015-00325 - LG Electronics, Inc. v. ATI Technologies ULC". Unified Patents. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  5. ^ "AMD Receives Next-Generation OpenGL ES 2.0 Graphics Technology Certification". TechPowerUp. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  6. ^ Ferguson, Scott (January 20, 2009). "AMD Sells Handset Division to Qualcomm for $65 million". eWeek. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  7. ^ "www.tripleoxygen.net 3D Graphics and SpeqG Update" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ a b c d tripleoxygen. "tripleoxygen" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "www.tripleoxygen.net" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ "Qualcomm History and its GPU (R)evolution". PC Perspective. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
  11. ^ http://grmanet.sogang.ac.kr/seminar/compa.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  12. ^ "Qualcomm MSM7201A Application Processor with Modem Datasheet | CPUlist". PDAdb.net. 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2020-06-09.
  13. ^ Qualcomm MSM7201A. "Qualcomm MSM7201A Specs, Reviews, Ratings". System-on-a-chip.specout.com. Archived from the original on 2016-06-16. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  14. ^ "3D Gaming Brochure" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  15. ^ a b "The Freedreno driver" (PDF). Rob Clark @ FOSDEM2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g "Adreno GPU SDK - GPU - Qualcomm Developer Network". Developer.qualcomm.com. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
  17. ^ "Mobile GPUs : Architectures". Bastian Zuehlke. 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  18. ^ freedreno (2015-01-06). "A3xx shader instruction set architecture · freedreno/freedreno Wiki · GitHub". Github.com. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  19. ^ Snapdragon 400 processor specs at qualcomm.com
  20. ^ "Expands Qualcomm Snapdragon 200 Processor Tier". Qualcomm. 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  21. ^ "Qualcomm Rolls-Out High-End Quad-Core Snapdragon S4 System-on-Chips". X-bit labs. Archived from the original on 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  22. ^ a b "Qualcomm Snapdragon embedded platforms HW and SW Overview" (PDF). explace. 2016.
  23. ^ a b c AnandTech - Adreno 320 performance preview
  24. ^ Mikael Bourges-Sevenier (2014-03-29). "Imaging on embedded GPUs". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  25. ^ a b c d "Qualcomm announces Vulkan API support for Adreno 530".
  26. ^ "High Quality with High Performance UE4 Mobile Game - CSDN博客". blog.csdn.net (in Chinese (China)). Retrieved 2018-06-12.
  27. ^ "Technologies Announces Next Generation Qualcomm Snapdragon 805 "Ultra HD" Processor". Qualcomm. 2013-11-20. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  28. ^ "Xiaomi Redmi Note 5A Prime (Y1) performance in GFXBench - unified graphics benchmark based on DXBenchmark (DirectX) and GLBenchmark (OpenGL ES)".
  29. ^ Humrick, Matt. "Qualcomm Details Snapdragon 835: Kryo 280 CPU, Adreno 540 GPU, X16 LTE". Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  30. ^ "GFXBench - Unified cross-platform 3D graphics benchmark database". The cross-platform performance site. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  31. ^ "Vulkan graphics API receives major 1.1 update". Android Authority. 2018-03-07. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
  32. ^ "SA6155P Automotive Development Platform | Lantronix". 2020-04-09. Retrieved 2021-09-11.
  33. ^ "Snapdragon 665 Mobile Platform". Qualcomm.
  34. ^ "Qualcomm Adreno 610". www.cpu-monkey.com. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  35. ^ "QCS603 SoC | Qualcomm". Qualcomm. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  36. ^ "QCS605 SoC | Qualcomm". Qualcomm. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  37. ^ a b c "AnTuTu tests Snapdragon 730 and 665". GSM Arena.
  38. ^ "Snapdragon 730 Mobile Platform". Qualcomm.
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