Adrenochrome

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Adrenochrome
Structural formula of adrenochrome
Ball-and-stick model of the adrenochrome molecule
Names
IUPAC name
3-Hydroxy-1-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-5,6-dione
Other names
Adraxone; Pink adrenaline
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.176
Properties
C9H9NO3
Molar mass 179.18 g·mol−1
Density 3.264 g/cm³
Boiling point (decomposes, 115-120 °C)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Adrenochrome is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C9H9NO3 produced by the oxidation of adrenaline (epinephrine). The derivative carbazochrome is a hemostatic medication. Despite a similarity in chemical names, it is unrelated to chrome or chromium.

Chemistry[edit]

In vivo, adrenochrome is synthesized by the oxidation of epinephrine. In vitro, silver oxide (Ag2O) is used as an oxidizing agent.[1] Its presence is detected in solution by a pink color. The color turns brown upon polymerization.

Effect on the brain[edit]

Several small-scale studies (involving 15 or fewer test subjects) conducted in the 1950s and 1960s reported that adrenochrome triggered psychotic reactions such as thought disorder, derealization, and euphoria.[2] Researchers Abram Hoffer and Humphry Osmond claimed that adrenochrome is a neurotoxic, psychotomimetic substance and may play a role in schizophrenia and other mental illnesses.[3] In what they called the "adrenochrome hypothesis",[4] they speculated that megadoses of vitamin C and niacin could cure schizophrenia by reducing brain adrenochrome.[5][6] However, these hypotheses have never been scientifically accepted; adrenochrome is not currently believed to have any psychedelic properties.[7]

Law[edit]

Adrenochrome is unscheduled by the Controlled Substances Act in the United States, but if sold as a supplement, sales must conform to U.S. supplement laws. If sold for consumption as a food or drug, sales are regulated by the FDA.[8][unreliable source?]

In popular culture[edit]

  • Author Hunter S. Thompson mentions adrenochrome in his book Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. The adrenochrome scene also appears in the novel's film adaptation. In the DVD commentary, director Terry Gilliam admits that his and Thompson's portrayal is a fictional exaggeration. In fact, Gilliam insists that the drug is entirely fictional and seems unaware of the existence of a substance with even a similar name.

Hunter S. Thompson also mention adrenochrome in his book Fear and Loathing on the campaign Trail 72. In the foot notes in chapter April, page. 140 he quote: "'It was sometime after midnight in a ratty hotel room and my memory of the conversation is haze, due to massive ingestion of booze, fatback, and forty cc's of adrenochrome'"

  • The harvesting of an adrenal gland from a live victim to obtain adrenochrome for drug abuse is a plot feature in the first episode "Whom the Gods would Destroy", of Series 1 of the British TV series Lewis (2008).[9]
  • In Anthony Burgess' 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange, "drencrom" (presumably the Nadsat term for adrenochrome) is listed as one of the potential drugs that can be added to milk-plus (milk laced with a drug of the consumer's choice).
  • In 1982 UK rock band The Sisters of Mercy released the double A-side single Body Electric/Adrenochrome.

References[edit]

  1. ^ MacCarthy, Chim, Ind. Paris 55,435(1946)
  2. ^ John Smythies (2002). "The adrenochrome hypothesis of schizophrenia revisited". Neurotoxicity Research. 4 (2): 147–150. doi:10.1080/10298420290015827. 
  3. ^ Hoffer, A. Osmond, H., Smithies, J.; Schizophrenia: a new approach. Journal of Mental Science #100 (January, 1954)
  4. ^ Hoffer, A (1990). "The Adrenochrome Hypothesis and Psychiatry". Retrieved 2011-07-25. 
  5. ^ Hoffer, A. and Osmond, H. (1967). The Hallucinogens. Academic Press. 
  6. ^ Hoffer, A., Osmond, H., & Smythies, J. (1994). "An Evolutionary Defense Against Severe Stress. Schizophrenia: A New Approach". Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 9 (4): 205–221. 
  7. ^ "The controversy that these reports created just sort of died away, and the adrenochrome family has never been accepted as being psychedelic. No one in the scientific community today is looking in and about the area, and at present this is considered as an interesting historical footnote." As seen at: Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin (1991). "#157 (TMA)". PiHKAL - A Chemical Love Story. Transform Press. 
  8. ^ Erowid. "Adrenochrome Law". Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  9. ^ "Inspector Lewis Series Synopsis". Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. 

External links[edit]